Liquid Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

Bogolepova AN, Makhnovich EV, Kovalenko EA and Osinovskaya NA

Published on: 2022-12-21


One of the most significant tasks of modern neurology is the study of dementia problems. According to the general opinion of researchers, the most common cause of dementia among people over 65 years of age is Alzheimer's disease (AD). This disease causes at least 60-70% of dementias. Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease in the early stages is difficult, since the symptoms of the disease are nonspecific, and can be noted in other neurodegenerative, as well as vascular diseases of the brain. In this regard, a special role in the lifetime diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease is played by modern research methods, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and the determination of biomarkers of cerebrospinal fluid (Aß and tau). However, it should be noted that all of the above methods are expensive and invasive. Therefore, an urgent direction is the search for new biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease that have a low cost and are used in routine clinical practice. Currently, these include biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease, determined in biological fluids – saliva and blood (Aß and tau protein). Also recently, much attention has been paid in the scientific literature to the role of sirtuin proteins (SIRT) in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Published data indicate that SIRT regulates many fundamental biological processes in the body, including processes that are disrupted in AD, such as Aß precursor processing, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and mitochondrial dysfunction. This makes it possible to identify SIRT as potential biomarkers of AD, the presence of which can be determined in biological fluids, such as saliva and blood.