Knowledge and Attitude of Rural Women Household to Food Safety Practices in Oyo State

Adebisi GL, Akram M and Nisar J

Published on: 2021-03-14

Abstract

The research investigated knowledge and attitude of rural women household to food safety practices in state of Oyo. Multistage sampling procedures were performed to choose 120 respondents and data for the study were gathered by mean of interview schedule. Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC), Percentages, and Mean). Results revealed that 70.0% of the respondents have low knowledge of food safety practices and negative attitudes to food safety practices. Concerted efforts should be made by government and non-government organization to intensify frequent campaigns, sensitization, training via extension agents on food safety practices and its importance. The empowerment scheme that would facilitate increase in income should be organized for rural women in order to easy their access to more facilities that would enhance the wholesomeness of their food.

Keywords

Attitude; Knowledge; Rural women, Food safety practices

Introduction

Food’s handling and preparation have gotten perhaps the most widely recognized dangers related with the rise in food-borne illnesses outbreaks in various nations of the world. As indicated by a estimation, 48 million food-borne sicknesses happen every year in the United States (USA) alone, prompting 128,000 hospitalizations and 3000 death [1]. In Europe, it was accounted for that around 5,196 food-borne flare-ups (counting water-borne episodes) happened in 2013 [2]. It is likewise announced by the World Health Organization (WHO) that food-borne sicknesses to a great extent decrease the wellbeing and financial development of both developed and developing nations [3]. Almost 2.2 million individuals worldwide consistently killed by-food and water-borne flare-ups of diarrhea as per the WHO. Aside from diarrhea, food-borne sicknesses can likewise trigger other severe problems like failure of liver and kidney, cerebrum and neural problems, tumors and passing [3]. Global investigations have shown that a huge extent of food borne sicknesses emerge from practices in the home kitchen [4]. A few investigations evaluating various groups of consumers distinguished food preparation in the family home as a significant food contamination source [5]. In an attempt to minimize the foodborne illness risk, food safety-related knowledge and attitudes of food handlers is very crucial, hence, food prepared and handled with satisfactory hygienic standards is one of the necessary conditions for promoting and preserving the people health. According to world Health Organization [6], food safety is defined as the quantity of assurance that food will not origin of any harm or sickness to the consumer when it is ready, served and eaten according to its proposed use. Poor hygienic practices or disregard hygienic practices such as unprotected food material from dust and flies may amplify the pathogens risk to get in contact with foods which in few cases caused illness in consumers. In Nigeria, food safety is a noteworthy and rising public health crisis, improper food preparation, inadequate reheating of cooked food, insufficient food processing and poor personal hygiene are vital donor to the massive sickness and death [7]. For instance, on the 16th September, [8], Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) news line stated of a 5 member of family who died after a fufu meal owing to associated food safety practice. Non-compliance of the proper hygiene and sanitation standards of food preparation and handling results in food contamination and subsequently food poisoning. Many people especially children become ill because of intestinal worms, hepatitis A, enteric fever, and other infections caused by unhygienic preparation of foods in households [9]. The awareness, sensitization and understanding of rural women in Nigeria regarding the food safety practices is very low which represent one of the factors responsible for their poor health condition. According to Oranusi et al [9], many rural regions of Nigeria lack adequate enlightenment on food safety practices which is one of the factors accountable for the food borne disease outbreaks occurrence. To promote a healthy living practice sanitary measures and procedures, personal hygiene of the personnel handling the food, the environment sanitation where the food is ready and served, also the equipment used have to be put in position to make sure that food is free from contamination agents [10]. It is against this background that the study established socioeconomic the respondents characteristics, knowledge and attitudes of the respondent’s food safety practices in the study area. It was hypothesized that no significant association present between the respondent’s knowledge and their attitude to food safety practices.

Methodology

The study was done in Oyo state, bothered by Benin Republic in the west, North and east by Kwara and Osun States respectively and Ogun state in the south. It lies between latitude 7o north and 9.3 o of the equator and between latitude 2.5o east to 5.0o east of the prime meridian. Multistage sampling process was performed for the selection of respondents in the study area. The 1st stage involved the Oyo state local government stratification into rural and urban. The 2ndstage involved simple random selection of 4 rural local governments from twenty-one rural local governments which are; Ido, Egbeda, Afijio, and Akinyele local governments. The third stage involved simple random selection of the two wards from selected 4 rural local governments which resulted to eight (8) wards. The 4th stage involved the simple random selection of two (2) communities from each ward which resulted to sixteen (16) communities in total selected wards. The fifth stage involved selection of eight rural women households from the selected communities using systematic sampling technique which resulted to a total sample size of one hundred and twenty-eight (128) rural women households. This was done by selecting the first rural household in every community at interval size of 6then subsequently the next seven, thirteen, --- households were selected until desired numbers were drawn, hence, any woman in the household was interviewed but the response rate was 94.0%. Data for this study were obtained through structure interview schedule and therefore analyzed using percentage, mean and PPMC. The respondents were asked to indicate their opinion to knowledge statements that were provided to them and correct option was scored 1 and incorrect option was scored 0, mean value was used to classify the respondents into low and high knowledge. The attitudinal statements were provided to the respondents to provide information on it using 5point likerts type scale: strongly agreed, agreed, undecided, disagreed, and strongly disagreed with a score of 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 and mean score was used to classify the respondents that have positive and negative attitude, below the mean score are grouped as negative and mean and above are grouped as positive.

Results and Discussion

Socioeconomic Characteristics of the Respondents

Available statistics in table 1revealed that the respondents have a mean age of 32.0 years; this suffices to say that the respondents are in their active years of age which is expected to be mentally alert to practices that can guarantees food safety. Majority of the respondents (68.3%) were married. This is an indication that married women were more involved in food handling and preparation in one way or the other. On the side of respondent’s education, majority of the respondents had primary education (78.3%), 12.5% of the respondents had secondary education and 9.2% of them had tertiary education. This implies that respondents in the study area had one forms of formal education that has potential to make up some deficient in food handling and preparation. Available result indicated that the monthly mean income of the respondents was#36114.30; this suffices to say that the respondents had moderate income which is expected to enhance the amenities required for food safety by the women in food handling and preparation. Result depicts that 70.8% of the respondents were artisans which implies that rural women households in the study area engaged one skilled activity or the other as their main livelihood. With regards to household size, respondents have a fairly large household size between 5-7 which implies that rural women household have fairly large household size to cater for, however, these household size can serve as family labour (Table 1).

Table 1: Distribution of respondents by socioeconomic characteristics (n=120).

Variables

Frequency

Percentage (%)

Mean

Age (years)

     

24-33

21

17.5

 

34-43

36

30

 

44-53

34

28.3

32

54-63

29

24.2

 

Marital status

     

Single

5

4.2

 

Married

82

 

68.3

Divorced

18

 

15

Widowed

15

 

12.5

Level of education

     

Primary education

94

 

78.3

Secondary education

15

 

12.5

Tertiary education

11

 

9.2

Monthly Income (?)

     

5000-15000

14

11.7

 

15001-25000

37

30.8

 

25001-35000

49

40.8

36114.3

>35000

20

16.7

 

Major Occupation

     

Full time farmers

29

   

Artisans

85

   

Civil servants

6

   

Household size

     

4-Feb

54

45

 

7-May

55

45.8

6

10-Aug

11

9.2

 

Respondent’s Knowledge of Food Safety Practices

The result of the analysis in (Table 2) revealed that majority of the respondent indicated that eating raw and undercooked foods can cause food- borne illness (86.7%), covering of raw and cooked foods prevents food contamination (85.0%), washing of hand before and during cooking prevents food contamination (72.0%), Improper cleaning and sanitization of utensils make the food unsafe to eat (56.7%), Keeping of fingernails long and broken make the food unsafe to eat (52.5%).

Table 2: Distribution of respondents according to their knowledge on food safety practices (n=120).

Variables

Frequency (%)

Mean

Covering of raw and cooked foods prevent food contamination

102 (85.0)

0.85

Improper cleaning and sanitization of utensils make the food unsafe to eat

68 (56.7)

0.56

Eating of leftover food without reheating has link with food poisoning.

55 (45.8)

0.45

Keeping of fingernails long and broken make the food unsafe to eat

63 (52.5)

0.52

Dust is a source of food poisoning

52 (43.3)

0.43

Washing of rotten or damaged vegetables makes the food unsafe to eat

37 (30.8)

0.3

Touching of nostrils, mouth, ears and hair while preparing food can lead to food contamination

50 (41.7)

0.41

Washing of hand before and during cooking prevent food contamination

87 (72.5)

0.72

Anybody recovering from sickness should not be allowed to handle food to prevent food contamination

42 (35.0)

0.35

Eating raw and undercooked foods can cause food-borne illness

104 (86.7)

0.87

Cooking of food while fresh protect it from contamination

52 (43.3)

0.43

Covering of all open wounds, sores and cuts prevent food from infection

48 (40.0)

0.4

Respondent’s Level of Knowledge of Food Safety Practices

Respondent’s level of food safety practices knowledge was evaluated by using mean criterion. The respondent’s knowledge mean score was 0.50 and respondents below the mean were classified as those having low knowledge of food safety practices while those that have mean and above were categorized as those having high knowledge of food safety practices. 70.0% of the respondents were below the mean and 30.0% of the respondents were above the mean (Table 3).

Table 3: Distribution of respondents according to level of knowledge on food safety practices (n=120).

Level of knowledge

Frequency

Percentage (%)

Mean

Low knowledge

84

70

 

High knowledge

36

30

0.5

Attitude of Respondents to Food Safety Practices

(Table 4) shows that majority of the respondents affirmed that cleaning up kitchen surfaces and utensils is an ideal practice (95.9%), reheating of food before dishing does not waste time therefore worth doing (82.5%), wearing of clean cloth is  important in food preparation (64.2%), short and unpainted nails is a worthwhile practice in food handling (53.3%).

Table 4: Distribution of respondents according to their attitude to food safety practices (n=120).

Variables

SAAUDSD

 

F (%) F (%) F (%) F (%) F (%)

Mean

Disinfect refuse bin to keep away flies is a worthwhile practice

17(14.2)16(13.3)5(4.2)57(47.8)25(20.8)

2.52

Washing of hand with soap after toilet use is one of the conditions for food safety

1(0.8)    5(4.2) 36(30.0)   20(16.7)     58(48.3)

1.92

Reheating of food before dishing does not waste time, therefore worth doing.

63(52.5)   36(30.0)14(11.7) 3(2.5)4(3.3)

4.25

Eaten of un heating leftover food depicts bad attitude to food safety practice.

15(12.5)   17(14.2) 5(12.5)     59(49.2) 14(11.7)

2.41

Short and unpainted nails is a worthwhile practice in food handling

57(47.5)7(5.8)23(19.2) 28(23.3) 5(4.2)

3.69

Cleaning up kitchen surfaces and utensils is an ideal practice

77(64.2)38(31.7) 1(0.8)3(2.5)   1(0.8)

4.55

Food waste should be wrapped before putting in bin

8(6.7)2(1.7)   2(1.7) 62(51.7)46(38.3)

1.86

Wearing of clean cloth is important in food preparation

63(52.5)   14(11.7) 36(30.0)   4(3.3)   3(2.5)

4.08

Proper storage of fruits and vegetables in a cool place is a worthwhile practice before cooking

1(0.8) 5(4.2)37(30.8)21(17.5)­­­56(46.7)

1.95

Eaten of unwashed fruits is a Worthwhile practice

57(47.5) 25(20.8)   5(4.2) 16(13.3)17(14.2)

1.42

Stream water is not good for cooking.

13(10.8) 13(10.8)36(30)   24(20.0) 34(28.3)

2.55

 

Relationship between Respondent’s Knowledge of Food Safety Practices and Their Attitude

The result of the correlation analysis in table 5 shows that there was relationship between respondent’s knowledge of food safety practices and their attitude but not significant (r=0.136; p= 0.07). The implication is that respondent’s food safety practices knowledge affects the attitude of the respondents, respondent’s low knowledge of food safety practices resulted to their negative attitude (Table 5).

Table 5: Result of correlation analysis of respondent’s knowledge of food safety practices and their attitude.

Variable

r-Value              

p-Value

Knowledge

0.136

0.07

 

Conclusion and Recommendations

Based on the empirical evidence of the study, it can be concluded that respondent shave negative attitudes and low knowledge of food safety practices. However, concerted efforts should be made by government and non-government organization to intensify frequent campaigns, sensitization, training via extension agents on food safety practices and its importance. The empowerment scheme that would facilitate increase in income should be organized by government for rural women in order to easy their access to more facilities that would enhance the wholesomeness of their food.

References

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