Improving Awareness and Transmission Risk Reduction Related To Japanese Encephalitis in Endemic Region of Mon State Myanmar

Mya MM, Win AYN, Mon POo, Thaung S, Tin Oo and Wai KT

Published on: 2022-08-20


Japanese encephalitic (JE) is one of the public health problems in Myanmar. It is a zoonotic disease caused by JE virus spreading to human through the bite of Culex mosquitoes. The study was conducted in Khalock Kanine village, Mu Kawe village, Anout Ward and Toe Cheat Ward in Chaung Sone Township and Abaw village, Chaung Taung Village, Shwe Pyi Thar Ward and Aung Metter Phyo Ward in Ye Township in Mon State from September 2019 to October 2020, where JE suspected cases were reported. 50 houses each was randomly selected from each village and ward near with the pig farm.  Mosquitoes were collected in all selected houses and pig farms using WHO sucking tubes. Result found that JE main vector Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was abundantly collected in all study areas. The JE vector density was higher in Chaung Sone than Ye Township. The highest number of JE vector was found n=1188 in Khalock Kanine village followed by n=1069   Toe Cheat Ward in Chaung Sone Township and n=1032 in Adawe village in Ye Township, and lowest was observed n=715 Mu Kawe village.  Although suspected vectors such as Cx,vishnui and Cx. gelitus were abundantly found in all selected areas. Filarial vector Cx. quinquefasciatus was highest n=228 in Abaw village followed by n=279 in Chaung Taung Village  followed by 229 in Abaw village  and lowest was observed 67 in Anout Ward. Small number of Anopheles mosquitoes were collected. Culex tritaeniorhynchus larvae were abundantly found in rice field water and polluted water pools and creeks.  Highest density of main vector Cx tritaeniorhynchus and suspected vectors Cx. vishnui and Cx.gelidus were found in both Chaung Sone and Ye Townships areas. Pig are main host of JE virus, Cx tritaeniorhynchus adult and larvae were abundantly collected in pig farms, polluted water pools, creeks and rice fields in all selected villages and wards JE suspected cases and JE cases are available in both areas. Over 95% of the populations known JE transmission is occurred by the biting of JE infected mosquitoes in night time. For the prevention of JE over 80% of population reported that sleeping in mosquito nets, burning mosquito coils,  used spray and vaccination to human for prevention of mosquito bite. Over 80% of population known most susceptible age group was under 5 years old children.  Over 90% of the villagers knew the mosquitoes were bred in polluted water. Attitude of half of the respondents was satisfactory for all items asked. Practices were relatively good. Study recommended that modified agriculture practices, pig vaccination, rigorous monitoring, vector control, and improved living standards can reduce morbidity of JE cases This study provides further information on risk of JE transmission in study areas. Environmental and ecological factors are responsible for the spread of JE virus. Therefore VBDC need to distribute LLINs nets and health education to all family members to prevent JE transmission in village and wards.