The Design of Water Treatment Plant at Ponukumadu Village for Recycling Of Waste Water

Uppala P and Dey S

Published on: 2022-10-31


Ponukumadu is a town in Nandivada Mandal in Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh state, India. Ponukumadu is around by Gudivada Mandal to the South, mainly the exterior water i.e., pond water is the major resource of water is taken from Krishna river by Nehrelli conduit for the Ponukumadu village. The region of the water pond is 5 acres and depth of the pond having 6 feet at the centre and having 4 feet at the border. The inhabitant of Ponukumadu village is 650 as per 2021 survey. The water tank capability of rural community is 40,000litres. This analysis was approved to measure the exterior water purity and appropriateness for ingestion reason. The water features parameters have the chemical, physic

Ponukumadu is a town in Nandivada Mandal in Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh state, India. Ponukumadu is around by Gudivada Mandal to the South, mainly the exterior water i.e., pond water is the major resource of water is taken from Krishna river by Nehrelli conduit for the Ponukumadu village. The region of the water pond is 5 acres and depth of the pond having 6 feet at the centre and having 4 feet at the border. The inhabitant of Ponukumadu village is 650 as per 2021 survey. The water tank capability of rural community is 40,000litres. This analysis was approved to measure the exterior water purity and appropriateness for ingestion reason. The water features parameters have the chemical, physical and biological characteristics and can be analyzed depend on the preferred water parameters of worry.  The ingestion water purification plant consists of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection units. Mainly depending on the water quality effect, every unit is frequently analysis to appreciate the better water quality products, both in plan and procedures.

al and biological characteristics and can be analyzed depend on the preferred water parameters of worry.  The ingestion water purification plant consists of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection units. Mainly depending on the water quality effect, every unit is frequently analysis to appreciate the better water quality products, both in plan and procedures.


Water quality; Physical and chemical parameters; Treatment; Design and optimization


Water is single of the major usual assets on the ground. It is the next essential essence following air those are essential for the existence of the entire living organisms on this world. The majority of earth’s surface (71%) is enclosed by water and sea takes concerning 97% of water those are salty and not secure for ingesting and other requires. If 3% of water is clean and appropriate for consumption. The 30% of the clean water is taken in the appearance of icebergs and chilly ice caps and only a small quantity is collected as underground water and surface water. The water those are apply in surface water mostly existing in the rivers, ponds and lakes [1-2].

But as the inhabitants and growth actions are raising the surface and groundwater are receiving polluted regularly. In present it is not secure to straightly apply the water from rivers, reservoirs, and lakes as it have different micro-organisms, pathogens, and other pollutants that have an undesirable consequence on the physical condition of humans, plants, and animals. To survive a strong life, it is essential to utilize simply fresh water. But the detail is drinkable water i.e. Ingesting water is never existing universally on the earth. Each year a huge amount of public expire due to drinking polluted water. There are various countries wherever there is never sufficient ingestion water. This circumstance of harmful and dangerous exterior water has produced the requirement for irrigate water purification plant [3-5].

Water purification is the procedure of better quality of waters by transient it throughout the different procedures. It addition  the elimination of floating solids and further injurious chemicals so that it is secure for uses or for re-addition it reverse to the natural scheme. The purification for ingestion water production participate the elimination of pollutants and/or stopping of any particular destructive microbes from untreated water to produce water that is clean sufficient for person ingestion without any short term or long-term hazard of any unpleasant health outcome [7-8].

In broad terms, the highest micro animal problems are associated with ingestion of water that is contaminated with person or animal (including bird) faeces. Faeces can be a cause of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminths. The elimination of microbial pathogens is necessary, and normally participate the application of highly active chemical agents such as floating solids, to eradicate bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi, and minerals including iron and manganese. The process concerned in eliminating the pollutants applied physical procedures such as settling and filtration, chemical procedures such as disinfection and coagulation, and natural procedures such as slow sand filtration. A mixture chosen from the following procedures depending on the period and pollutants and chemicals exist in the untreated water is applied for public drinking water treatment universal [9-10].

The different water purification processes are also discussed. Aeration process is applied to eliminate unpleasant tastes and colour and also to eradicate the dissolved gases such as CO2, H2S etc. The Fe and Mn exist in water also oxidized to several amount. This procedure is voluntary and is not used in cases wherever water does not hold unpleasant taste and odour. In cascade aerators, aeration is proficient by usual outline units that combine cascading water with atmosphere that is physically added into the water flow. Air is physically applied into the water flow to achieve iron oxidation and several reductions in the dissolved gasses [11 - 12].

Clariflocculator is a mixing of flocculation in a particular tank. It has double concentric tanks wherever internal tank serves as a flocculation washbasin and external tank serve as a clarifier. In the Clariflocculator, the water enters the flocculator, wherever the flocculating paddles more flocculation of the feed particles. As the solid particles move to the bottom, the water flows totally up in the clarifier area. The purified water is moved over a peripheral barrier into the tangential wash. The present sludge is situated to the bottom close to the main weir from wherever it is way to the sludge compartment and produced [13-14].

Filtration is a procedure for extrication floating and mixed impurities from water by move throughout the porous opening medium. Filtration of public water requirements normally is able by (a) Slow sand filters (b) Rapid sand filters. For the planning function applied slow sand filters. The filter bed containing of normal sand with an efficient dimension of 0.25 mm to 0.35 mm and consistency coefficient of 3 to 5. For most excellent effectiveness, the depth of filter bed should be not lower than 0.4 – 0.5 m. As a coating of 10 – 20mm sand will be cleaned every time the filter, a novel filter would be added with an early sand depth of about 1.0 m. Resanding will subsequently be converted into essential only once in 2–3 years. Disinfection is the decrease in the amount of bacteria, viruses, or fungi to a preferred deliberation. Disinfection is necessary for exterior water resources and also essential for several groundwater resources in order to destroy or inactivate major damaging organisms [15-16].

The various processes are used for this reason, with ultraviolet (UV) light purification, ozonation and chloramination. The efficiency of a certain sanitizer depends on the amount of disinfectant, contact time, temperature, turbidity, particulate amount and certain microbes. Chlorine might use in the appearance of materials such as bleaching powder or sodium hypochlorite those create the chlorine obtainable if they arrive into need with water. These are applied for disinfection of lower water provisions having requirements up to 0.5 MLD. The pure safe water is essential for daily life, it is necessary for health, cleanliness and the efficiency of our society [17-18].

Water purification is the procedures for improving the superiority of water so that it meets the water quality standard for its suitability for the future application after having been chemically or biological contaminated. The pure water has a huge significance in engineering apparatus and water deliver lines form the corrosion. Water feature depends on the basis.

The exterior water is polluted by elements such as rain. The toxic chemicals, metal and other pollutants exist in water are hazardous for the physical condition of humans and various organisms present on this earth. These poisonous chemicals and toxins participate to different health troubles like asthma, cholera, diarrhea, asthma, cancer, skin disorders and still demise [19-20].

Chlorine added to drinking water fights bacteria. Hence, it will decrease the yearly demise rate of human reason by consumption contaminated water. Water requirements by lakes and rivers mainly drinking water have refuse and contamination making it unhealthy for utilization. The water requirement to suffer different treatment to made it clean, healthy, secure and potable. Water purification procedures can decrease the precise pollutants such as organic materials, heavy metals, pesticides and nitrates. For lots of people who are applied on city water, the taste of chlorination can be extremely devastating. The existence of invincible organic or mineral substances reasons several troubles in the consumption water. The more amounts of total dissolved solids (TDS) can be the consequence of fertilizers, manufacturing waste and water overflow. Water purification is extremely much useful for the environment. It participates to equilibrium the water cycle by proper maintaining ground water and surface water. The water cleanliness at the purification vegetation can be applied for different applications like ingestion, domestic use, manufacturing, farming and agricultural purposes, etc. This resolves the trouble of water scarcity and countries with inadequate entrée to harmless water will be better [21-23].

Water treatment plants are also significant as they accomplish the growing need for water. The untreated and unprocessed water is produced from an underground aquifer (mainly by wells) or beginning a surface water resource, those are lake or river. To provide the better quality and steady water to the consumers, the water utilities themselves, should found the accurate maintenance and administration programs to raising the accessibility of plant facilities and equipment in the water purification plant. The purpose of a public protected water supply scheme is to deliver secure and pure water in the sufficient amount, expediently and as cheaply as possible [24 - 25].

The water distribution works formulated by the different state authorities and local bodies at exist do not hold all the necessary elements for assessment and while the projects are applied for their cost benefit ratio and for institutional or additional support. The Physico-chemical study is planned to be done in examine the water quality. The water parameters analysis are pH, turbidity, hardness, alkalinity, acidity, sulphates, chlorides, residual chlorine, nitrates, iron, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), most probable number (MPN). So that the population increasing was made by the study analysis collected to get the capability of waste water treatment plant. So, depends on the quality of water and capability of the plant, the design of water treatment plant and components are planned [26-27].

The insecure and insufficient supply of clean water is severe concern in developing nations. So, this investigate was undertaken to discover the superiority as well as amount of different water sources applied for consumption in Ponukumadu village. After surveying, a complete six water sample stations were chosen from various locations where huge amount of individuals were utilizing them to drink. It is observed that, this town depends upon communal pipe born water supply, boreholes and open wells for intake reason and all the areas have entrance to sufficient water supply. The compilation of samples was complete in pre-monsoon as well as post-monsoon period and tested for different physical, chemical and microbial properties. The investigation was done by applying standard procedures (APHA/NEERI) and product values compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline standards [28-30]. Ponukumadu is a rural community in Nandivada Mandal in Krishna region of Andhra Pradesh state, India. Ponukumadu is bounded by Gudivada Mandal towards South, Pedaparupudi Mandal towards west, Bapulapadu Mandal towards North, Mandavalli Mandal to East.



Forecasting Population and Water Demand

The propose populace will contain to be expected within consider to each the factors foremost to the prospect enlargement and development of the project regions in the manufacturing, business, learning, social and managerial spheres. The major factors reasoning rapid migration or invasion of inhabitants should also be foreseen to the degree probable. A judgment depends on these factors would assist in finding the major appropriate technique of deriving the possible tendency of the populace enlargement in the particular areas of the project from subsequent numerical methods, graphically represented where demands. Population fluctuations can be done in three ways (i) by births (population expand) (ii) by deaths (population defeat) or (iii) immigration (population failure or increase depending on whether relocated out or relocated in occurs in more) [31-32]. The occupation of a region may be measured as a particular type of immigration. Population forecasts are mainly produced by synthesizing and summing up of divide but associated to projections of normal raises and of mesh immigration and is articulated as, the net effect of births and deaths on population is termed normal raise. In this case, for population forecasting, declining rate of increase technique is applied as the rate of increase of populace represents a descending tendency. Forecasted population represented in the Table 1 for the subsequent 30 years is predictable to be 750 i.e., for the year 2051.

Table 1: Population of Ponukumadu village as per census.


Population as per census









The amount of water essential in the households for consumption, swim, cooking, cleaning etc is recognized as household water requirements and mostly depends on the practice, community status, climate situation and habits of the individuals. The domestic consumption as discussed in Table 2 of water in India is concerning 135 litres/day/capita. If in urban countries this require might be 325- 340 litres/day/capita due to their application of coolers, air conditioners, continuation of residential lawns, regular domestic uses etc. There are victims and wastage happens in conduit in the water distribution [33-35].

Table 2: Average Indian town water demands.

Domestic use

135 LPCD

Industrial use


Public use


Commercial or Trade


Losses, Wastage and thefts



270 LPCD

Per capita water demand is 270 LPCD, The entire water requirement = 750 x 270

= 2,02,500 LPCD

= 8.4375 m3/ hr

10 m3/ hr


Materials and Methods

Water superiority represents to the physical, chemical, biological and radiological properties of water. It is evaluate of the situation of water relation to the necessities of single or additional biotic kind and or to some person require or reason. It is highly commonly applied by position to a place of values beside those fulfillment can be assess. The more standards applied to estimate water superiority relate to physical condition of ecological, security of person contact and intake water. The rain stream as it lower to the exterior of soil adsorbs sand and gases from the environment. It is more uncovered to natural substance on the exterior of soil and by the occasion, it gets the resource of water deliver, it is observed to hold different other contaminants also. In regulate to determine the excellence of water; it is applied to different tests. This analysis can be separated into the subsequent three categories:

  • Physical Analysis
  • Chemical Analysis
  • Bacteriological Analysis

The lakes and ponds wrap up mainly a minor region of the earth’s exterior plane. The surface water is an important fraction of usual environment and its property is highly significant and severe topic in various countries. The physico-chemical parameters used for water feature measurement are done by the existence of complete organic and inorganic mixtures that are moreover suspended or dissolved in water. Water quality analysis is the uniqueness of water those influences its application as well as the better quality of the surroundings. The aspect of water feature in total environments represents significant order concerning the current property for supporting life in that atmosphere and good for individual applications. Water superiority manifestation took whole water superiority at a certain location and instance depends on different water excellence parameters. Water quality measuring is the major tools, to distinguish and continue changes on the toxicity usual and create regarding the successful of management plan.


Results Outcomes Analysis

Water reserve analysis is participated a main concerning in various region at Andhra Pradesh in those polluted waters major troubles to human health and surroundings. The difference of the physicochemical parameters with pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and minute metals were used in water samples taken from the ponds and as discussed in Table 3. Water Samples were used from the ponds and calculated the water quality parameters are measured in various seasonal changes.

Table 3: Test results of water quality parameters.











Observed Value


Limit as per (IS10500-2012)


























































Complete Hardness








Residual chlorine




The results those are getting following the analysis for getting out the analysis of various parameters exist in the water samples. This combined knowledge on different water quality parameters at diverse climatic conditions and getting the whole knowledge into exacting importance concerning that definite space at specific instance. In this analysis 12 parameters are preferred for the measurements. They were pH, turbidity, DO, Fluoride, nitrates, chloride, hardness, total solids, dissolved solids and suspended solids. The normal superiority for ingestion water was recommended by Bureau of Indian Standard (2012). This investigation is majority for current situation can be valuable in similar environmental circumstances in the upcoming evaluation to convenience of better drinking water in the developing countries. The tropical regions occurrence rainfall processes similar to the climate changes that collision lakes and ponds moreover. Design of Water Treatment Units in Ponukumadu Villages

Construction of Cascade Aerator

Thumb Rules:

Surface over flow rate = 0.02 to 0.05 m2/m3/hr Complete height of aerator = 1.5 to 7 m

Height of steps or rise per step = 150 to 300 mm

Length of steps (for rectangular arrangement) = 300 to 600 mm Inlet water speed rate for major pipe = 0.6 to 1 m/s

Inlet flow speed = 10 m3/hr

Surface run over velocity = 0.02 to 0.05 m2/m3/hr (Taken 0.03 m2/m3/hr)

Exterior region of flow aerator = Flow x SOR= 10 x 0.03= 0.3 m2

Complete velocity of water = 1.2 m/s

Region of release pipe = Run off rate x discharge velocity= 10/3600 x 1.2 m/s= 0.003 m2

Diameter of discharge pipe

d = 0.061 m ≅ 100 mm

Diameter of major pipe = 100 mm

Major shaft barrier width = 100 mm

External diameter of major shaft = 100 + 100 + 100= 300 mm

Table 4: Measurement of diameter of steps of cascade aerator.





300 + (20 x 2) = 340

340 mm


340 + (20 x 2) = 380

380 mm


380 + (20 x 2) = 420

420 mm


420 + (20 x 2) = 460

460 mm


460 + (20 x 2) = 500

500 mm


500 + (20 x 2) = 540

540 mm


540 + (20 x 2) = 580

580 mm


580 + (20 x 2) = 620

620 mm


620 + (20 x 2) = 660

660 mm


660 + (20 x 2) = 700

700 mm

Measurement of channel in the thickness of cascade aerator Design = 10 m3/hr, channel W/D = 1, velocity= 0.6 to 1.0 (Taken 0.6 m/s)

≅ 0.07 m

Total water depth = 0.07 m Offering for collecting conduit,

Width = 0.07 m, Water depth = 0.07 m

The intake speed of cascade aerator is 10 m3/hr with exterior spill over rate 0.03 m2/m3/hr and speed of water is 1.2 m/s. The diameter of major pipe is 100 mm and external diameter of main shaft is 300 mm through wall thickness of 100mm. The diameter of major cascade aerator is 700 mm with 10 numbers of steps. Increase for each step is 150 mm and breadth of fall is 20 mm.

Construction of ClariflocculatorO

Overall outlet = water + solid (Regarding solid as 3%) For opening of 10 m3/hr

Inlet = 10 + 0.3 ≅ 10.3 m3/hr

Thumb Rules:

For planning of main pier Internal velocity = 1.2 m/s

For design of flocculator region detention period = 30 minutes For planning of clarifier regions SOR = 1.2 to 4.5 m3/m2/hr (Taken

3.0 m3/m2/hr)

For capacity of clariflocculator, Plane water depth = 3 to 4.5 m (Taken 3.5 m)

Design of Central Inlet Pipe

The Intake flow velocity rate is 10.5 m3/hrand the speed of major inlet tube is 1.2 m/s by diameter of pipe is 80 mm. The main diameter of flocculator region is 1.38 m with detention duration is 30 min and surface water deepness is 3.5 m. The major width of clarifier region is 2.11m and diameter of clariflocculator is 4m with real region of 12.56m2.

Design of Clariflocculator Zone

Total regional area of slow sand filter is 100 m2 with three numbers of filter beds and total diameter of filter is11.5m.  Complete deepness  of  filter  is  2.7  m  in  superannuated  water  1.0  m,  open board 0.2 m, deepness of filter sand 1.0 m, Gravel depthless of 0.3 m, and underground drains depth is 0.2m.

Purification of Water Treatment Plant

If  chlorine  present  is  more  than  30%  in  bleaching  residue  the  5g would be applied for 1000 lit of water. For, Water requirement of 2,40,000 liters Total  quantity  of  bleaching  dust  particles  =  1.2  kg  of  bleaching powder should be added.




The feature of water needs to be calculated to generate the baseline information for advantage of the community. In regulate to start the mitigation procedures of water mainly a regular analysis on the amount of contamination from the various parts in diverse seasons to be done. The future populace for the year 2051 is 750; the highest regular water requirement of Ponukumadu rural community is exist as 0.24 MLD. The standard parts of physical, chemical and biological properties of untreated water purity are analysis and originate. The physical characteristics includes Turbidity -36NTU, and chemical characteristics includes pH –8.75, TDS -1175mg/L, DO –6.1 ppm, complete hardness –165 mg/L, chlorides -31.20 mg/L, Total alkalinity -20 mg/L, Nitrates -5mg/L, and sulphates -87.55 mg/L. Due to the physical, chemical characteristics of untreated water were produce to be higher than the permissible limit. To solve this effect on society, it is superior to plan more water purification plant. In this respect designed water purification plant at Ponukumadu rural community to the need. The water treatment plant consists of individual treatment units i.e., Cascade aerator, Clariflocculator, Slow Sand filter, Disinfection. The cascade aerator sizes are 700mm dia., 1.5m height. Clariflocculator sizes are 4 m diameter, 3.5 m height, and filter structure diameter is 11.5m and total height of filter is 2.7 m.

Declaration of Competing Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Data Availability Statement

The statements in the paper are properly cited in the manuscript and no additional data is available.


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