Novel Approaches for the Management of Cardiometabolic Risks

Rao GHR

Published on: 2019-01-28

Abstract

Increase in the incidence of metabolic risks, such as oxidative stress, low grade inflammation, excess weight, obesity, endothelial dysfunction, hardening of the arteries, subclinical atherosclerosis, type-2 diabetes, and vascular diseases is rapidly occurring worldwide. These chains of metabolic alterations, leading to acute vascular events like heart attack and stroke, are commonly known as cardiometabolic risks. Framingham heart studies have developed information about the modifiable metabolic risks that promote the development of cardiovascular disease, which has remained as number one killer for over a century. Several epidemiological studies at the population level have shown the presence and contribution of these modifiable risks, in causing premature mortality. Some of the well-known, long-term multi-country studies have demonstrated that robust management of modifiable cardiometabolic risks significantly reduces premature mortality. Despite this observed decline in cardiovascular mortality in industrialized nations, researchers have observed increases in diabetes-related mortality in high income countries. Excess weight and obesity contribute significantly to the development of type 2 diabetes. Diet, exercise and healthy lifestyle seem to be the only sure choice for reducing, reversing, or prevention of obesity and diabetes. Much of the global healthcare burden, seems to be in the low-income and medium-income countries. In this overview, we briefly discuss the epidemiological findings, with global perspective, narrate some novel approaches, and present our views on what needs to be done, to address the issues related to the twin epidemics of obesity and type-2 diabetes.