Comparison of the Hyperkalemic Effects of Erythropoietin and U-74389G

Panoulis C

Published on: 2019-08-14


Aim: This study estimated the effects on serum potassium (K) levels, after the treatment with either of these 2 drugs: the cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) and the pure antioxidant lazaroid (L) drug U-74389G. The estimation was based on the outcomes of 2 preliminary studies. Each preliminary study calculated a certain hyperkalemia, after the respective drug administration in an experiment of induced rat ischemia reperfusion (IR).

Materials and methods: The 2 main interexperimental endpoints at which the serum K levels were measured were the 60th reperfusion min (for A, C and E groups) and the 120th reperfusion min (for B, D and F groups). Specifically, the groups A and B were placebo, groups C and D were processed by Epo; whereas groups E and F by L administration.

Results: The first preliminary study was that of Epo. It showed a non-significant hyperkalemic effect by 0.18%+2.22% (p-value=0.9338). The other preliminary study, that of U-74389G, presented a non-significant hyperkalemic effect by 2.07%+3.03% (p-value=0.4853). Both studies were co-estimated since they came from a common experimental setting. The result of the co-estimation was that L is 11.4937-fold [11.42513 - 11.56268] more hyperkalemic than Epo (p-value=0.0000).

Conclusions: The anti-oxidant capacities of U-74389G ascribe 11.4937-fold more hyperkalemic effects than Epo (p-value=0.0000).


Ischemia; Erythropoietin; U-74389G; Serum potassium levels; Reperfusion


The lazaroid U-74389G (L) may not be famous for its hyperkalemic1 capacity (p-value=0.4853) [1]. U-74389G as a relatively novel antioxidant factor, is met hardly only in 260 published studies. The ischemia reperfusion (IR) style of experiments was noted in 18.84% of these studies. A protective feature of U-74389G was obvious for tissues in these IR studies. The U-74389G which is chemically known as 21-[4-(2,6-di-1-pyrrolidinyl-4-pyrimidinyl)-1-piperazinyl]-pregna-1,4,9(11)-triene-3,20-di one maleate salt is an antioxidant macromolecule, which inhibits the lipid peroxidation either being arachidonic acid or iron-dependent motivated. U-74389G protected the animal heart, kidney, brain and liver microvascular endothelial cells monolayers after IR injury. U-74389G also 1) attenuates the leukocytes; 2) down-regulates the proinflammatory gene; 3) treats the endotoxin shock; 4) produces cytokine; 5) enhances the mononuclear immunity; 6) protects the endothelium and 7) presents antishock property. Erythropoietin (Epo) even if is also not famous for its hyperkalemic2 action (p-value=0.9338), it can be considered as a reference agent for comparison with U-74389G. Although Epo is found in over of 30,901 published biomedical studies, hardly a 3.63% of them negotiate the known style of IR experiments. Nevertheless, Epo as a cytokine, it is fundamental to be studied about its effects on serum potassium (K) levels too. This experimental work compared the effects of both drugs on a rat induced IR experimental protocol. They were tried by calculating the serum K levels rises.