Suicide Rate Recorded At Jala Hospital in a Period of 5 Years

Elmrghni S, Bohagar S and Kaddura M

Published on: 2021-02-13

Abstract

Suicide remains a significant public health problem, causing almost half of all violent deaths and resulting in roughly one million fatalities every year, as well as an economic cost of billions of dollars (World Health Organization [WHO], 2004). Worldwide, more people die from suicide than from all homicides and wars combined (International Association for Suicide Prevention [IASP], 2005). Although suicides represent 1.4% of the Global Burden of Disease, the losses extend much further. Current statistics from the Suicide Prevention (SUPRE) branch of the WHO show that suicide has a global mortality rate of 16 per 100,000; this calculates to 1 death every 40 seconds caused by suicide (WHO, 2011). Trends show the problem is also on the rise, with estimates suggesting fatalities could rise to 1.5 million deaths by 2020 (WHO, 2004). In the last 45 years, suicide rates have increased by 60% worldwide, and suicide is among the three leading causes of death among those aged 15-44 years in some countries, and the second leading cause of death in the 10-24 years age group; these statistics do not include suicide attempts which are up to 20 times more frequent than completed suicide (WHO, 2011).

This is a retrospective study of suicides in the cases presented to Al Jala hospital , the main trauma hospital in Benghazi , we conclude that the young age groups was the most common age group in suicidal deaths and most common cause of suicidal death was hanging. The study results and conclusions may be useful to create suicide prevention programs that are targeted to different population groups.

Keywords

Suicide rates; Benghazi city

Introduction

Suicide is an important public health problem in all cultures and all societies [1]. Indeed, suicide represents 1.4% of the Global Burden of Disease and its economic costs are in the billions of dollars. Over the past 50 years, the number of suicides worldwide increased by approximately 60%. Almost one million fatalities every year are attributed to suicide, and in most European countries, the annual number of suicides is larger than that of traffic fatalities. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized the seriousness of suicide as a public health problem and has begun a global initiative for the prevention of suicide [2]. Among countries that maintain registers on suicide, the highest rates are found in Eastern Europe and the lowest are found mostly in Latin America, in Muslim countries, and in a few of the Asian countries. However, there are few such registers in African countries. Although no reliable data is available on attempted suicides, this number is estimated to be 10-20 times higher than that of completed suicides, resulting in injury, hospitalization, emotional and mental trauma. Suicide rates tend to increase with age, but the WHO has recognized an alarming worldwide increase in suicidal behaviors among the age group of 15 to 25 years. Estimates suggest that fatalities among all age groups could rise to 1.5 million by 2020 [1]. Suicide is defined in the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) as “intentional self-harm” [3]. However, the terminology surrounding suicide varies across the forensic, administrative, and medical arenas. Now most of the definitions are based on a consensus within these arenas [4]. Suicidal ideation is also known as suicidal thoughts, i.e., considering and planning suicide [5]. Subtypes of suicidal ideation depend on the presence or absence of suicidal intent. Suicidal ideation with no suicidal intent is when an individual has thoughts of engaging in suicide-related behavior but has no intention to go through with it [4]. When an individual is unable to clarify whether suicidal intent was present or not, the term undetermined degree of suicidal intent is used [4]. Suicide-related ideation with some suicidal intent is when an individual has thoughts of engaging in suicide-related behavior and possesses suicidal intent [4].

Suicidal behavior is an intentional act of self-harm that could cause a person to die [6]. The outcomes of suicidal behavior include considering and planning suicide, attempted suicide, and completed suicide. Attempted suicide is an act of self-harm that is intended to result in death but does not. A suicide attempt may or may not result in injury. Completed suicide is an intentional act of self-harm that results in death. Suicide is differentiated from deliberate self-injury. Deliberate (non-suicidal) self-injury is the act of deliberately destroying one's body tissue without conscious suicidal intent [7].

Aim of the Study

The overall aim of the study was to know the rate of suicide as a main mental health problem in the population of Benghazi city through the cases presented in 5 years to Jala hospital.

Materials and Methods

Retrospective study cases was taken from department of statistics were all data was stored in the form of files in Jala hospital (big trauma hospital in Benghazi city).

Five years from 2011-2015, 108 cases both male and female.

Data were statistically analysed.

Results and Discussion

Table1: Age and frequency of suicidal deaths (overall).

Age

Frequency

Percentage

0-14

10

9.70%

15-19

19

17.40%

20-24

19

17.40%

25-29

18

16.50%

30-34

3

2.70%

35-39

9

8.20%

40-44

12

11%

45-49

6

5.50%

50-54

6

5.50%

55-59

1

0.90%

60+

7

6.40%

Table 2: Age and frequency of suicidal deaths (Female).

Age

Frequency

Percentage

0-14

5

9.40%

15-19

16

30.10%

20-24

8

15.09%

25-29

4

7.50%

30-34

1

1.80%

35-39

7

13.20%

40-44

0

0%

45-49

4

7.50%

50-54

4

7.50%

55-59

1

1.80%

60+

3

5.60%

Table 3: Suicide (cause of death in detail).

Cause of Death

Frequency

Percentage

Hanging

38

34.80%

Drug

14

12.80%

Burn

15

13.70%

Unknown

19

17.30%

Gunshot

9

8.20%

Foreign

3

2.70%

Stabbing

6

5.50%

Scalding

1

0.90%

Cut Wound

1

0.90%

Drowning

1

0.90%

Table 4: Sex and cause of death (female).

Cause of Death

Frequency

Percentage

Hanging

21

38.80%

Drug

9

16.60%

Burn

7

12.90%

Unknown

10

18.50%

Gunshot

1

1.90%

Foreign

1

1.90%

Stabbing

4

7.50%

Scalding

0

0%

Cut Wound

0

0%

Drowning

1

1.90%

Table 5: Sex and cause of death (male).

Cause of Death

Frequency

Percentage

Hanging

17

30.30%

Drug

5

9%

Burn

8

14.20%

Unknown

9

16%

Gunshot

8

14%

Foreign

2

3.50%

Stabbing

4

7%

Scalding

1

2%

Cut Wound

1

2%

Figure 1: Age and frequency of suicidal deaths (overall).

Figure 2: Age and frequency of suicidal deaths (male).

Figure 3: Age and frequency of suicidal deaths (female).

Figure 4: Frequency of cause of death.

Table -1and fig 1 showed that Age and frequency of suicidal deaths (overall) as follow Age group from 0-14 was 10% , age group from 15-19 was 19%, age group from 20-24 was 19 , age group from 25-29 was 18% , age group from 30-34 was 3%, age group from 35-39 was 9% , age group from 40-44 was 12%, age groups from 45-54 was 6% , 55-59 was 1% and above 60 was 7%.

Table – 2 and fig 3 represented Age and frequency of suicidal deaths (Female) Age group from 0-14 was 5 out of 41 females (9.4%) , age group from 15-19: was 16(30.1%), age group from 20-24: was 8(15.09%) , age group from 25-29: was 4(7.5%), age group from 30-34: was 1(1.8%), age group from 35-39: was 7(13.2%) , age group from 40-44: was 0(0%) , age group from 45-49: was 4(7.5%) , age group from 50-54:was 4(7.5%) , age group from 55-59: was 1(1.8%) and above 60: was 3(5.6%)

Fig -2 represented age and frequency of suicidal deaths (male) 0-14- was 9%, 15-19 was 5%, 20-24 was 19%, 25-29 was 25%, 30-34 and 34-39-were 3% 40-44-was 9%, 45-49 and 49-54 were 3% , 55-59 was 0% and above 60 was 7%

Table – 3and fig 4 represented Suicide (cause of death in detail) Hanging:38(34.8%) , Drug :14 (12.8%), Burn :15 (13.7%), Unknown : 19 (17.3%) , Gunshot:9 (8.2%), Foreign body:3 (2.7%) , Stabbing : 6(5.5%), Scalding :1(0.9%) , Cut wound :1(0.9%) , Drowning: 1(0.9%)

Table 4-illustrated Sex and cause of death (female) Hanging: 21(38.8%) , Drug : 9(16.6%), Burn : 7 (12.9%), Unknown : 10 (18.5%), Gunshot:1(1.9%) , Foreign body: 1(1.9%) , Stabbing : 4(7.5%) , Scalding: 0(0.%) , Cut wound : 0(0%) , Drowning: 1(1.9%)

Table 5 – represented Sex and cause of death (male)

 Hanging:17(30.3%) , Drug: 5(9%) , Burn :8 (14.2%), Unknown : 9 (16%), Gunshot: 8(14%) , Foreign body: 2(3.5%), Stabbing : 4(7%), Scalding : 1(2%) , Cut wound : 1(2%)

Conclusion

From our study we concluded that Suicidal deaths as overall were common in the age groups from 15-24 by 17% and less common in age group 55-59 by < 1%. Regarding suicidal deaths in females were common in age groups 15-19 by30% and 20-24by 15% and less common 40-44 by 0%, in other hand deaths in male groups were common in 20-24 by 19% and 25-29 by 25% and in opposite to female 40-44 by 19% and less common in 55-59 by 0% The most common cause of death in both sexes was hanging then unknown causes and then burn and drugs respectively, less common cause was drowning, cut wound and Scalding. In female was hanging 38% , then drugs 16% and then for unknown causes And less causes due to other causes In male the most common cause of suicidal deaths were hanging 30%, unknown causes 9%, then burn 8% and then by drugs 5%

References