North Cyprus Destinations` Marketing Management Approach through Remodelling Servqual Analysis

Esenyel I

Published on: 2021-03-08

Abstract

The primary purpose of this study was to present a theoretical background of service quality and application of the SERVQUAL model for assessing the level of satisfaction of guests seeking hospitality services in North Cyprus hotels. This research accomplishes; the guests' perception of service quality delivery by the hotels and the class of hotel stars where guests’ accommodated. The new model utilized in this study can be applied in other countries to assess tourists' satisfaction with the accommodation and the country itself. Data was gathered at North Cyprus, specifically at the tourism capital city of Girne (Kyrenia), using a sample of 400 guests. The analysis of data was done using the ANOVA test. .The results strongly support the completeness of the model and give new dimensions to marketing management in the hospitality industry.

Keywords

Servqual; Service Quality; Destination brand quality; Guests’ satisfaction; North Cyprus

Introduction

During the past three decades, tourism development has become one of the greatest assets in island microstates. Faced with growing global competition in which destinations are becoming highly substitutable, destination marketing organizations (DMOs) are in a constant battle to attract travelers [1-4]. According to, the tourism industry in North Cyprus has experienced phenomenal growth in the last few years, and the sector by itself has become highly competitive [5]. Due to the competition in the tourism industry, stakeholders need to define and meet the desire of guests to ensure guests' satisfaction, which would increase the prospects of having repeat clients. This study focuses on the tourism industry in North Cyprus. In this region; the tourism industry plays a vital role in the country’s economy as it offers services to both local and international guests. Notably, this industry has been creating 10 percent of all new jobs since 2012; currently, the tourism industry supporting one in eleven of all jobs around the globe [6]. One of those recent data published by the economic research department of the World Travel and Tourism Council, the industry's contribution to the economy was 10,4 percent of the total Gross Domestic Product, which is approximately US$ 8,8 trillion Dollar in 2018. Service quality has become a critical idea that focuses on the perception of guests in the hospitality business. Concerning service providers, this idea helps them to come up with strategies that will ensure guest satisfaction [7,8]. Notably, this stresses the importance of service offered by service providers. For this reason, just like service providers, the issue of service quality has become of great interest to many researchers.

Statement of the Problem

It is significant to mention that evaluation of service quality level is a complicated process; until recently, the quality was perceived by a large number of consumers, as an abstract, immeasurable, and subjective concept [9]. Quality assurance systems and the attempt by several businesses to improve the quality of their products and services to increase their competitiveness have contributed to the highquality standards offered by stakeholders in the tourism sector. Accordingly, the study determines the concept of quality of service and specifies individual quality assurance criteria for these services. The proposed quality dimensions grouped in according to the model SERVQUAL, which is simply a service quality measurement model [10]. In addition to the destination brand quality dimensions, it includes political, economic uncertainty, and terrorist activities [11].

Purpose and Significance of the Study

The hospitality sector has been the primary driver of North Cyprus's economy and contributes significantly to its gross national product. (GNP). As far as guests’ satisfaction is concerned, complaints about money transactions (check-in & out), the hotel's physical environment, and guests' service could be of great interest to hotel managers. Northern Cyprus has witnessed positive growth in the past decade. In the past few years, there has been a significant change in the sectors' performance. Initially, the agriculture sector was the backbone of the Northern Cyprus economy, then the trend shifted towards the manufacturing sector, and currently, the service sector plays a vital role in the economy [12]. In this study, the researcher integrates previous studies and utilizes the SERVQUAL model for hotels in Northern Cyprus. Besides, the researcher will add different variables from destination brand quality. There is a research gap in the combination of variables of two models, namely the destination brand quality and SERVQUAL, to create a new model and different meanings for SERVQUAL analysis. Accordingly, this research will offer up-to-date insight into the expectations and perceptions of hotel guests in North Cyprus.

Figure 1: Model of variables for Remodelling DBQ (Destination Brand Quality) Ismet ESENXEL.

Tourism sector in North Cyprus

Currently, the tourism industry has an exceptional consequence; it produced approximately three times more revenue or economic activity than that of the Island's revenue from total exports. (North Cyprus Ministry of Tourism and Planning office 2018 ) .Another report from the North Cyprus Ministry of Tourism and Planning Office (2018) highlighted that approximately 1,759,625 guests had visited Northern Cyprus during the year 2018. The report also mentioned that though the bed capacity for guests’ accommodation is 25,241 at the end of the year 2018. Besides, the bed occupancy rate in the year 2018 was 48,6 % annually. The hotel industry reported approximately 4,8% increase in guests' arrival in the year 2018. Furthermore, as we analyze income generation from the tourism industry was around 852 Million USD in 2017, whereas this figure has increased to 963 Million USD at the end of 2018. This improvement is a remarkable increase for the Northern Cyprus economy. Therefore, it is a fact that the hotel industry of Northern Cyprus has a remarkable impact on the Island's economy in the wake of enhanced competition and a significant increase in the arrival of guests. Thus, there is a need for hotel management to identify the importance of service quality, improvements in service delivery, and other related aspects of attaining a competitive advantage.

North Cyprus Hotels Role in Destination Brand Quality and under SERVQUAL

Activities are undertaken by the hotels fuel the socioeconomic and political aspects of North Cyprus. The tourist destination has ensured consumers identify that North Cyprus hotels are stable brand products consistently maintained through the use of quality standards to meet and fulfill consumer expectations. North Cyprus hotels managed as independent ownership systems under various economic, social, environmental, and political agents. They create structural and strategic changes across the tourist destination, such as raising awareness, improving brand image, achieving loyalty, value, and quality. These interdependency dimensions have, therefore, played a vital role in determining consumer perceptions [13].

Methodology

The main target of this chapter is to illustrate the methods used in the research. This chapter includes research design, instruments, sampling population. Besides, the sample data have collected by clarifying the questionnaire sections one by one to test the proposed hypothesis to create a new model of SERVQUAL by adding new dimensions from the destination brand quality. The research specifically will attempt to reveal the 'guests-customers-visitors' trust in the services of the hotels in Northern Cyprus. Furthermore, another core objective of the research is to unleash the current service quality of the hotels in Northern Cyprus, which will highlight the significance of service quality within the hotel industry [14]. The proposed methodology will be the combined result of both the desk-based research stage and a primary research stage, as this joint approach has chosen for achieving optimal results with regards to the research objectives. The primary research stage included the processing of several surveys conducted. As far as the secondary, desk-based research stage is concerned, this chosen for the advantage of gathering and reviewing the information that is readily available [15]. Independent, dependent fluctuations assessed various moments in time within the longitudinal studies and the accuracy of the conclusions depending on the relevance of the intervals of time between the evaluated variables. The present paper makes use of the quantitative methodology, and it is also a longitudinal study, as it examines and interprets collected data concerning the impact that service quality of hotels has on customer satisfaction and expectation [16].

Limitation of methodology

The results obtained from the research define that there are still exist limitations and shortcomings in the sampling process. A small research scope will not allow researchers a comprehensive view of the issue. Research should be expanded to enhance the sample data in the future to strengthen the results and find out what factors influence the attitudes and satisfaction concerning service quality.

Data Collection

Sample: In North Cyprus, there are nineteen 5- star hotels, six 4- star hotels, fifteen 3- stars hotels, 24 two-star hotels, and nineteen one-star hotels distributed in its cities where the sample selected randomly to reduce researcher bias and errors. The population of this research is composed of tourists who visit Northern Cyprus between July and August 2019. According to the data of the Tourism Planning Office; 152,247 people visit in July, and 159.250 people visit in August, and a total of 311,497 people visited the North Cyprus tourism market in this period. Due to the constraints of time management and logistical issues, it was hard to reach out to every tourist/visitor. So sample data of 400 (four hundred) individuals were taken into consideration, which was selected by a simple random sampling method with a 5% sampling error at the 95% confidence level, are interviewed.

Data Collection Tools: In this research, the questionnaire form used as the data collection tool. This questionnaire consists of four parts for personal information, destination brand quality, SERVQUAL, and Hotel guest satisfaction. In the personal information form, which is prepared by the researcher, the questions including the participants' demographic characteristics (gender, age range, and occupation), accommodated hotel category, and the reason for the accommodation take part.

Validity and Reliability of the Study

The information collected from the participants will significantly strengthen the research and in a practical and useful way. The research questions will serve to create an analysis, and the results of quantitative and qualitative analysis, the authenticity of the study clarified in the selection of suitable sample size and quality of that sample. Guests’ satisfaction. It is a term used to a degree how goods or services performed by the provider meet or exceeds customer’s anticipation [17]. Besides, independent variables are also playing a significant role in guests satisfaction. Independent variable: Its three dimensions of 13 items measured destination Brand Quality, Destination brand quality dimensions taken from and the researchers created the items. Terrorism: in this research, terrorism was measured by four items to test whether North Cyprus' Guests were sensing or visualizing any terrorism action inside the country and whether the factor of terrorism will affect them in any way to their level of satisfaction [18].

Political: In this Political research factor was measured by five items to test whether North Cyprus Guests were affected by the current unstable political situation of the country and whether the political factor will affect in any way to their level of satisfaction.

Economics: in this research, the economic impact was measured by four items to test whether North Cyprus guests were getting affected by the economic situation of the country and whether the factor of economic will affect in anyhow their level of satisfaction.

Results

The results of this study are to investigate the impact of service quality and destination brand quality over guest’s satisfaction in the hotel industry in North Cyprus. The descriptive characteristics of the sampled hotel's guests, analysis of the research questions and test of the hypothesis, and other findings from this study were designated. Methods of data analysis used in searching socio-demographic characteristics, the measurement of service quality, the measurement of destination brand quality, and customer satisfaction to answer research questions and test hypotheses. Many researchers have found that an increase in quality leisure time enhances leisure satisfaction [19]. It is reasonable to conclude that the length of time spent on leisure travel will affect satisfaction with leisure life.

Table 1 (a): The distribution and descriptive statistics of the answers of participants given to statements under “Political Factors” sub-scale.

Strongly Disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly Agree
 
s
Political Factors n % n % n % n % n %    
1. Prefer Not to visit a country that is not recognized as a sovereign state 41 10.3 45 11.3 153 38.3 84 21 77 19.3 3.28 1.2
2. A country whose political conditions are unstable is still worth visiting if it has the right attractions 115 28.8 126 31.5 52 13 75 18.8 32 8 2.46 1.3
3. Political affiliations are one of the key factors that determine tourist satisfaction in a destination 37 9.3 91 22.8 120 30 95 23.8 57 14.3 3.11 1.18
4. A politically stable country satisfying more To tourists than one that is politically unstable. 6 1.5 35 8.8 70 17.5 184 46 105 26.3 3.87 0.95
5. Prefer to visit a country that has Direct Flights (No Transit). 12 3 42 10.5 50 12.5 140 35 156 39 3.97 1.1

Table 1 (b): The distribution and descriptive statistics of the answers of participants given to statements under “Political Factors” sub-scale.

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Undecided

Agree

Strongly Agree

 

s

Economic Factors

n

%

n

%

n

%

n

%

n

%

 

 

6. High inflation results in costly and hence dissatisfying tourism experiences

11

2.8

43

10.8

92

23

174

43.5

80

20

3.67

1

7.Countries that depend on other countries for the growth of their economies cannot attain high Guests’ satisfaction regarding tourism

41

10.3

102

25.5

117

29.3

95

23.8

45

11.3

3

1.16

8. When budgeting to travel, the level of care about the cost as Long as the country has a lovely place.

109

27.3

169

42.3

60

15

45

11.3

17

4.3

2.23

1.1

9. Find traveling to North Cyprus costly compared to

75

18.8

144

36

67

16.8

76

19

38

9.5

2.65

1.25

 Other countries.

Table 1 (c): The distribution and descriptive statistics of the answers of participants given to statements under “Political Factors” sub-scale.

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Undecided

Agree

Strongly Agree

 

s

Terrorism

x

%

n

%

n

%

n

%

n

%

 

 

10. visit a country with potential terror attacks

8

2

25

6.3

32

8

128

32

207

51.8

4.25

0.98

11. Terrorism poses a threat to the tourism sector by making every attraction appear unsafe

4

1

26

6.5

49

12.3

142

35.5

179

44.8

4.17

0.95

12. The anxiety that arises from the fear of potential terror attack minimizes the possibility of enjoying a tourism activity

5

1.3

29

7.3

41

10.3

156

39

169

42.3

4.14

0.95

13. Muslim countries rarely face terrorist attacks thus are satisfying with regards to the provision of high quality and

87

21.8

115

28.8

152

38

25

6.3

21

5.3

2.45

1.06

In (Table 1(a), 1(c)), the distribution of the answers given by the tourists in the research to the statements under the political, economic, and terrorism factors sub-dimensions in destination brand quality scale. Tourists, who participate in the research, answer “I prefer not to visit an unrecognized country that is not a sovereign state" and "political affiliations is one of the key factors that determine tourist satisfaction in a destination" statements partaking under the political factor sub-dimension as "undecided." They answer, "A country whose political conditions are unstable is still worth visiting if it has the right attractions" statement as "disagree." Also, they answer, "A country that is politically stable is more satisfying to tourists than one that is politically unstable." and "I prefer to visit a country that has direct flights (No Transit)." statements as "agree." When the views of the participants related to the statements under the economic factors sub-dimension examined, it is seen that they answer “High inflation results in costly and hence dissatisfying tourism experiences” statements as “agree”, they answer “Countries that depend on other countries for the growth of their economies cannot attain high guests' satisfaction with reference to tourism" statements as "undecided", they answer "When I budget to my travel I don't care about the cost as long as the country has a beautiful places." and "I found traveling to North Cyprus costly compared to other countries." Statements as "disagree." On the other hand, it is evident that tourists that take place in the research answer the statements under the terrorism factor sub-dimension "I would not visit a country with potential terror attacks", "Terrorism poses a threat to the tourism sector by making every attraction appear unsafe" and "The anxiety that arises from the fear of potential terror attack minimizes the possibility of enjoying a tourism activity" as "agree" and they answer "Muslim countries rarely face terrorist attacks thus are satisfying with regards to provision of high quality and enriching experiences" statement as "disagree".

Table 2: The distribution of participants’ answers to “Tangibility” subscale.

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Undecided

Agree

Strongly Agree

 

s

Tangibility

x

%

n

%

n

%

n

%

n

%

 

 

14. The hotel has up-to-date equipment and instrument facilities

6

1.5 0

3 1

7.7 5

8 0

20.0 0

18. 3

45.7 5

10. 0

25.0 0

3.8 5

0.9 4

15. The physical hotel features are visually appealing

3

0.7 5

1 8

4.5 0

4 9

12.2 5

20.5

51.2 5

12 .5

31.2 5

4.0 8

0.8 2

16. The hotel reception desk employees’ are neat in appearance

3

0.7 5

1 1

2.7 5

5 1

12.7 5

18.9

47.2 5

14 .6

36.5 0

4.1 6

0.8 0

17. Materials associated with the service visually appealing in a hotel.

7

1.7 5

2 8

7.0 0

7 7

19.2 5

20

50.0 0

88

22.0 0

3.8 4

0.9 1

Table 3: The correlations between the participants’ SERVQUAL scale points and Hotel’s Guest Satisfaction points.

SERVQUAL

Hotel's Satisfaction

Guest

Tangibility

r

0.56

p

0.00*

n

400

Reliability

r

0.58

p

0.00*

n

400

Responsiveness

r

0.5

p

0.00*

n

400

Assurance

r

0.58

p

0.00*

n

400

Empathy

r

0.57

p

0.00*

n

400

*p<0.05

In (Table 3), the correlations between the points taken from tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy sub-dimension in the SERVQUAL scale and the points of their satisfaction given.  The correlations between the points from tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy sub-dimensions and satisfaction points are statistically significant. These correlations are positive and moderate strength. While the points from tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy sub-dimensions increased, also satisfaction points increase too.

Table 4: Regression Model of Destination Brand Quality factors affecting participants’ satisfaction.

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

F

p

Destination Brand Quality

0.85

0.72

0.72

340.21

0.00*

*p<0.05

The regression model belongs to destination brand quality factors that affect the satisfaction of participants is given in Table 4 The linear regression model, which is composed of the sub-dimensions in destination brand quality that affect the satisfaction of participants, is statistically significant (p<0.05). The goodness of fit of the regression model, with the inclusion of the threefactor model, is tasty and determined that the total variance explains 72% of the total variance (R2=0.72).

Table 5: The indicator of the regression model belong to Destination Brand Quality factors that affect the satisfaction of participants.

Destination  Brand Quality

Unstandardized Coefficients

 

Standardized Coefficients

 

 

B

Std. Error

B

t

p

(Constant)

1.31

0.1

 

12.93

0.00*

Political factors

0.1

0.02

0.12

4.38

0.00*

Economic factors

0.26

0.02

0.35

12

0.00*

Terrorism factors

0.39

0.02

0.59

19.65

0.00*

*p<0.05

When the regression analysis results related to destination brand quality factors that affect the participants’ satisfaction, the emergent regression model is; 

The results given in Table 4.6 have positive effects on the satisfaction of participants by political factors. Accordingly,

“H01: Political Outsources do not have any effects on hotel guests' satisfaction in north Cyprus." The hypothesis rejected, and the political factors have a positive effect on the satisfaction of the participants, and this effect is seen to be statistically significant.   Economic factors have a positive effect on the satisfaction of the participants. According to this,

“H02: Economic Outsources does not have any effects on hotel guests' satisfaction in north Cyprus." is rejected and said that the economic factors have a positive effect on the satisfaction of the participants, and this effect is seen to be statistically significant. Terrorism factors have a positive effect on the satisfaction of the participants. According to this, “

H03: Terrorists Outsources do not have any effects on hotel guests' satisfaction in north Cyprus." is rejected, and the terrorism factors have a positive effect on the satisfaction of the participants, and this effect is seen to be statistically significant.

Discussion

The most crucial goal of hospitality management is to achieve the guests' satisfaction through different dimensions, in this study multiple of dimensions had been used with sub-dimensions to each, the study followed one of the most famous dimensions in evaluating guests’ satisfaction through service quality (SERVQUAL) analysis and another dimension which is the destination brand quality, This study is a proven method that the hotel's guests' satisfaction was dependent on internal variables of SERVQUAL and external variables that related to Destination brand quality such as (Political, Economic, Terrorism), this study proves that both dimensions internal (Service Quality) and external (Destination Brand Quality) have an effect on the guests’ satisfaction. Previous studies have shown that there is a direct relationship between service quality and guests’ satisfaction. The main dimensions of service quality construct in the service factors explaining results that the direct effect of service quality on guests’ satisfaction is significant However, there were no previous studies to link the destination brand quality with the guests’ satisfaction but, some studies were made to link every dimension aside; [20,21]. There is a positive relationship between economic impact and customer satisfaction [22,23]. Resort morphology goes through a predictable sequence of stages: from pre-tourism low through high-density development to an urbanized state. Three elements are considered essential in such coastal resorts change: hosts, guests, and politics. They are leading to a direct relationship between political dimensions and guest's satisfaction [24]. Nevertheless, studies of North Cyprus's hotels' industry were limited and simple. This study will add dimensions to the service quality for hotels in North Cyprus. The specific aims of this study were:

  • To evaluate the importance of service quality for hotels in North Cyprus
  • To evaluate the service quality for hotels in North Cyprus for guests
  • To evaluate the effect of destination brand quality outsources towards guests’ satisfaction
  • To offer recommendations based on the findings of the previous three points.

In this research, destination brand quality measured by perception of hotels' guests toward the three dimensions of destination brand quality (political, economic, terrorism), in addition the service quality was measured by perception of hotels' guests toward the SERVQUAL five dimensions (tangibility, reliability, empathy, responsiveness, and assurance). Guest satisfaction measured through eight elements distributed into two parts; part one includes four questions testing the guests' level of satisfaction towards the hotels' service quality, and the other part includes four questions that maintain the guests' level of satisfaction toward the country, i.e., the destination brand quality dimension. The sample of 400 respondents taken, all of the respondents were guests at North Cyprus hotels that rates from 1-star hotels up to 5-star hotels, and they were staying at least one night or above in those hotels. Results determine that destination brand quality and service quality were significant variables of guests’ satisfaction [25-33].

Conclusion

North Cyprus is getting a popular tourist destination, especially for British and Turkish, as the majority of the respondents were from England and Turkey. North Cyprus is considered to be an affordable country as most of the respondents were having low-income level less than 20,000$ annually, Also the majority agreed with the statement in question number 39 “I found staying in North Cyprus is not costly" by 3.27 North Cyprus is considered to be a safe and secure country as most of the respondents agreed with the statement in question number 37 and 38 "During your stay in North Cyprus you felt safe and secure; political condition of North Cyprus didn’t affect your stay duration in any way” by 4.31 for both statements. The most important factor for tourists in visiting a country is to feel safe and secure regardless of their gender, age, level of income, or hotel rate as the factor of terrorism got the highest rate in new DBQM (Destination Brand Quality Model). Also, the terrorism factor has a direct and robust effect on guests' satisfaction as the correlation was 0.78. The economic factor had the lowest rate sub-dimension, which concludes that guests least thinking about the economic factors compare to politics and terrorism. Also, economic factors had a positive-moderate correlation with guests' satisfaction, and guests of North Cyprus were a satisfying economic way, which leads that North Cyprus is an affordable and not expensive country. Assurance Sub-dimension at SERVQUAL had the highest rate, which reflects that employees of North Cyprus' hotels are knowledgeable and able to inspire trust and confidence. Employees of North Cyprus’ hotels were not that successful in sharing feelings of another. Employees failed to make the guests feel at home, at ease, and feel wanted as empathy get the lowest rate to compare to other SERVQUAL subdimensions. Guests, who accommodate at five-star hotels, get higher points from sub-dimension of tangibility and that express more positive opinions than other participants. The possible result reflects that the five-star hotels were better in design, furniture, and employees’ dress code. Regardless of guests' gender, age or hotel's star accommodation the level of satisfaction was similar between the different age groups, only a tiny difference at the level of satisfaction found in the different level of income as guests who have 75,000$ and above were having a higher level of satisfaction Overall, guests' level of satisfaction for the visits North Cyprus and its hotels was 4.09, which reflects that the guests were satisfied. There is a direct positive correlation between the sub-dimensions terrorism, economic, and politic from active to moderate to weak respectively, which concludes that the sub-dimensions of destination brand quality are valid and essential in assessing guests' satisfaction, and the model of destination brand quality can be accredited and added to the SERVQUAL Model. From the regression model, the sub-dimensions of destination brand quality were all having a positive effect on the guests' satisfaction, which means that the sub-dimensions have a positive effect on the guests' satisfaction where it leads to destination brand quality's dimensions are qualified to assess guests' satisfaction. There is a direct positive, moderate correlation for the sub-dimensions tangibility, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and reliability, which concludes that the subdimensions of service quality are valid and vital in assessing guests' satisfaction, which is another proof, added to the old ones that using SERVQUAL in assessing guests’ satisfaction is valid. From the regression model, it founds that the tangibility, assurance, empathy, and reliability sub-dimensions of service quality all had a positive effect on the guests' satisfaction which means that those sub-dimensions have a vibrant effect on the guests' satisfaction but, the responsiveness sub-dimension harm the guests’ satisfaction.

Recommendation

This model utilized in this study can be used to compare the guests’ satisfaction in different countries and compare results. North Cyprus considered being a cheap and affordable destination; they must use this strength to compete with other destinations and may make some ads abroad to attract new markets. North Cyprus tourism destination considered being a safe and secure destination, they must use this as strength to compete with other destinations, and North Cyprus authorities must intact and sustain the feeling of safety for the guests.

References

  1. Britton SG, Clark WC. Ambiguous Alternative: Tourism in Small Developing Countries. Suva, Fiji: University of the South Pacific. 1987.
  2. Butler R. Tourism Development in Small Islands: Past Influence and Future Directions. 1993. 71-91.
  3. Wilkinson PF. Strategies for Tourism in Island Microstates. Annals of Tourism Research. 1989; 16: 153-77.
  4. Pike S, Ryan C. Destination Positioning Analysis through a Comparison of Cognitive, Affective, and Conative Perceptions. J Travel Research. 2004; 42: 333-342.
  5. Katircioglu ST. Internation Tourism, higher education, and economic growth: The case of North Cyprus. The World Economy. 2010; 33: 1955-1972.
  6. Osman Z, Sentosa I. Mediating effect of customer satisfaction on service quality and customer loyalty relationship in Malaysian rural tourism. Int J Economics and Management. 2013; 2: 25-37.
  7. Altinay M, Hussain K. Sustainable tourism development: a case study of North Cyprus. Int J Contemporary Hospitality Management. 2005; 17: 272-280.
  8. Kouthouris C, Alexandris K. Can service quality predict customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions in the sport tourism industry? An application of the Servqual model in an outdoor setting. J Sport Tourism. 2005; 10: 101- 111.
  9. Ekiz EE. Factors Influencing Organizational Responses to Guest Complaints: Cases of Hong Kong and Northern Cyprus. J Hospitality Marketing Management. 2009.
  10. Kang G, James J. Service quality dimensions: an examination of Gronroos’s service quality model. Managing Service Quality. 2004; 14: 266-277.
  11. Mckercher B. The Implicit Effect of Distance on Tourist Behavior: a Comparison of Short and Long-haul Pleasure Tourists to Hong Kong. J Travel Tourism Marketing. 2008; 25: 367.
  12. Karatepe O, Ekiz E. The effects of organizational responses to complaints on satisfaction and loyalty: a study of hotel guests in Northern Cyprus. Managing Service Quality: An International J. 2004; 14: 476-486.
  13. Ching-Fu C. Exploring Relationship between Destination Brand Equity, Satisfaction, and Destination Loyalty: A Case Study of Mongolia. J Tourism Hospitality Culinary Arts. 2011; 3: 81-94.
  14. Rousan R, Mohamed B, Fernando Y. The impact of tourism service quality on customer satisfaction: the case of five-star hotels in Jordan. 2011; 2: 124.
  15. Adams J. Research methods for graduate business and social science students. New Delhi: SAGE Publication. 2007.
  16. Field A. Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. London England SAGE. 2009.
  17. Farris PW, Bendle NT, Pfeifer PE, Reibstein DJ. Marketing Metrics: The Definitive Guide to Measuring Marketing Performance. New Jersey: Pearson Education. 2010.
  18. Henderson J. Destination Development. J Travel Tourism Marketing. 2007; 20: 33-45.
  19. Buchanan T. Toward an Understanding of Variability in Satisfaction within Activities. J Leisure Research. 1983; 15: 39-51.
  20. Olorunniwo F, Maxwell KH, Godwin JU. Service quality, customer satisfaction, and behavioral intentions in the service factory. J Services Marketing. 2006; 20: 59-72.
  21. Reynolds E. James Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education. United States: Pro Quest Information and Learning Company. 2005.
  22. Nyberg LO. Hosts, guests, and politics: Coastal Resorts Morphological Change. Elsevier. 2006; 33: 1079-1098.
  23. Cathy A. Renata K, Lomanno M. The Impact of Terrorism and Economic Shocks. The Central of hospitality research. 2011; 11: 5.
  24. Driver BL. Toward a Better Understanding of the Social Benefits of Outdoor Recreation Participation. In Proceedings of the Southern States Recreation Research Applications Workshop. Gen. Tech. Rep.SE-9. Asheville NC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 1976; 163-189.
  25. Hoffman B. Inside Terrorism. Columbia university press. 2006.
  26. Ismet E. Sustainable tourism development of N. Cyprus Zoom Press. 14-15.
  27. Mankiw NG. Principles of macroeconomics (7 ed). Cengage. 2014.
  28. Ministry of Tourism & Environment North Cyprus Web site 2018
  29. Morrison A. Destination Management and Destination Marketing: The Platform for Excellence in Tourism Destinations. Tourism Tribune. 2012; 28: 6-9.
  30. Neger M, Ahamed B, Mahmud K. Measuring Service Quality of Internet Service Providing Firms in Bangladesh. Global J Management and Business Research. 2013; 13: 23-28.
  31. Painter J, Jeffrey A. Political geography. SAGE. 2009.
  32. Parasuraman A, Zeithaml VA, Berry LL. Servqual: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perception of service quality. J Retailing. 1988; 64: 12-40.
  33. Kundenbindung P. Customer loyalty, inspire and retain customers sustainable (3 ed). Berlin: Cornelsen Scriptor 2008.
  34. Pinho J, Macedo I, Monteiro A. The impact of online Servqual dimensions on certified accountant satisfaction: the case of taxation services. Euro Med J Business. 2007; 2: 154-172.