Introduction and Evaluation of Koekoek Dual Purpose Chicken Packages around Dilla Area Woreda, Gedeo Zone in SNNPR

Bekele B

Published on: 2019-12-17

Abstract

The study was conducted around Dilla area of chichu and Gola kebele at Chichu woreda, Gedio zone, SNNPR. 10 Participant farmers were selected purposively from both kebeles (5 from each kebele) on the basis of willingness to construct poultry house; to cover all the associated package costs and record the required data. under each household 50 day old koekoek dual purpose chicken were distributed that purchased from Debzeit agricultural research center and before the distribution of DOC training was arranged for those farmers about general management and introduction of breeds. The survivability of chicks using hay box brooding system under farmer’s level averagely 93.4% to the age of 24th week or on set of egg lay observed. On averagely 3.2%, 2.2.% and 1.2% mortality rate occurred at 2nd, 4th and 12th weeks of age respectively and it was a including effect of stress during the transportation from multiplication center or Debrezeith to Gedio zone and as the house hold condition i.e. preparation of brooding house, feeding and watering materials as well as hygiene of materials. This indicated the mortality rate has been decreased from first week of introduction of chickens to end of study. Generally 6.6% mortality rate or 93.4% survival rate observed in this study. Generally 6.6% mortality rate or 93.4% survival rate was observed in this study. The average weight gain also recorded using sensitive balance to evaluate growth performance. As a result, there was increasing trend of weight gain starting from initial weight to onset of egg production. So, maximum average body weight gain of koekoek chickens were 1.324kg and 1.746kg at 19th and 24th week respectively. But there was a variation b/n male and female chickens to the end of study i.e. average weight recorded were 1665gm and 1538gm male and female respectively at onset of egg production. Thesamely, average egg production and weights has been increased (18.3 to 20.6 and 44.87gm to 49.04gm) respectively to the 36th week of age. Finally, the cost benefit analysis has done and the income generated/obtained averagely in each household was 3033.6 ETB.

Keywords

Potchefstroom koekoek; Mortality; Farmers management

Background and Justification

Animal production in general and chickens in particular play important socioeconomic roles many poor rural households in developing countries [1,2]. In sub Saharan Africa, 85% of all households keep chicken under free range system, with women owning 70% of it; providing cheap/affordable animal protein in the form of meat and eggs as well as being a reliable source of cash income [3]. Besides the sector significantly constitutes to human livelihood and food security of poor households and can be considered an initiative enterprise owing to its low cost [4]. In spite of their great importance to the lives of most rural people, the contribution of village chicken is not proportion to the huge number. According to Singh 1990, low productivity of local breeds; prevalence of diseases; less availability and poor quality of feeds; limited research and poor extension service; and lack of organized marketing and processing facilities are some of the most important constraints affecting the village chicken production system. In Ethiopia chickens are the most widespread and almost every rural family owns chickens, which provide a valuable source of family protein and income [5]. The total chicken population in the country is estimated to be 42 million [6]. About 98% of the total population is consists of indigenous chickens characterized by the production of low yielding local chicken, a flock size of 5-6 per family and offering little or no additional inputs for housing, feeding and health care [7]. In Ethiopia, like other African countries, attempts have been made at various times by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MOARD) and several other institutions including research, higher learning institutions and NGOs to improve village poultry production systems through introduction of exotic breeds and fertile eggs [8]. Distribution of a day-old and 3 months old improved chicken breeds, mainly RIR & WLH, has been some of the livestock extension packages implemented by the ministry of agriculture. The package is being implemented in many ways like; 5 pullets & 1 cockerel, 1 cock only, 15 pullets & 2 cocks and 50 day-old chicks. Despite such a large number of improved breeds distribution into the village system, the majority of the chicken population is still comprised of the local stock managed under the traditional production system. The contribution of improved chicken in the current production system is less than two percent. A recent study on adoption of poultry breeds in the highlands of Ethiopia indicated that adoption has been limited by a set of factors such as, lack of strong extension follow up and complimentary inputs, diseases, unavailability of credit services and market problems. Besides, the numbers of breeds and birds included in the package were few [9]. This results to a huge gap between demand and supply of poultry products. According to the per capita egg and chicken meat consumption was estimated to be 57 eggs and 2.85 kgs respectively. But in the current time it is less than one egg and a kilogram of chicken meat, which is very much less than a global average (153 eggs) [10]. A recent study by Nigussie 2009, witnessed that the significance of enhancing institutional links and the need to transform the traditional piece meal approach of poultry technology transfer into promotion of carefully selected and packaged technologies. Therefore, to tackle the ever existing problem, different approaches of improved poultry technology packages dissemination should be followed on the basis of certain socio-economic and physical environments.

General Objective

To enhance a small scale commercial poultry production packages into potential areas so as to improve rural livelihood and nutrition quality of the people.

Specific Objectives

  • To promote and disseminate suitable full-fledged poultry packages
  • To build the skill of participant farmers thereby to increase farmer to farmer technology dissemination
  • To aware the contribution of poultry technologies to household income and food security
  • To increase the national per capita egg and poultry meat consumption

Methodology

The demonstration was conducted around Dilla area at Chichu and Gola kebele of chichu woreda in Gedio zone under 10 (5 from each kebele) purposely selected farmers household, among that one third of farmers were females. The farmers were selected on the basis of willingness to construct poultry house or those had house access, interest to rare the exotic poultry production, ability to manage well the breeds and resist all related challenges, enough time availability, to cover all the associated package costs and ability to record the required data was selected. Training has been given those selected farmers about poultry house and housing, health, feeding, watering and data recording. Data has been collected on body weight gain twice a month, mortality (as occurred due to either disease, predator, mechanical or others); age at first egg; cost of feed/feed ingredients and medicaments; income from sale of cocks, nonproductive/spent hens, and eggs. Intensive follow up during the brooding phase, then Monitoring and evaluation has been undertaken on monthly base afterwards by the respective researchers and technical assistant from our center. Field visit has also conducted, so that stockholders and farmers in the respective areas were included and participant farmers on the research have presented their success and/or experience on the work.

Results And Discussion

 

Survival and mortality rate of demonstrated koekoek chicken

As the mortality rate observed during study, the highest mortality rate (6%) was observed at first or second week at the Asnakes’ house following 4, 2 and 0 percent at the rest households. That death has become decreasing as the their age increasing that indicates, as increasing the age of Koekoek chicken breed, the adaptability or survivability performance increases for this breed at the mid – altitude of Gedio zone around Dilla town area. Only 1chicken (2%) death was occurred after 4th week of age at one house hold and it was by mechanical cause that unfortunately holding under her leg while searching feed. As indicated above table result, the survivability of chicks using hay box brooding system under farmers level averagely 93.4% to the age of 24th week or on set of egg lay observed. That was relatively better result from work done by Aman 2016 that Survival of chicks during the first 8 weeks of brooding using this modified hay-box at the farmers management condition was 79.8%. On averagely 3.2%, 2.2.% and 1.2% mortality rate occurred at 2nd, 4th and 12th weeks of age and it was a including effect of stress during the transportation from multiplication center or Debrezeith to Gedio zone and as the house hold condition i.e. preparation of brooding house, feeding and watering materials as well as hygiene of materials. But their survivability or adaptability was varied from farmer to farmer depending on management and totally no mortality occurred starting from 16th week to onset of egg lay except 0.2% occurred by mechanical cause at two farmers house hold called Ayele Asefa at 16th week and kebede Dora at 20th week. This indicated the mortality rate has been decreased from first week of introduction of chickens to end of study. This is in line with work done by Aman 2016 around Areka area that was mortality reduced from 20.2% to 6.9%. Generally 6.6% mortality rate or 93.4% survivalist rate observed in this study. This was indicated that adaptability of koekoek dual purpose chicken breeds around Dilla area or at mid land area were high at farmer level management using improved hay box for brooding system. As a result indicated above, at the beginning of study average initial weight was recorded at the first day of distribution and then 15th day gap up to the end of work average weight gain (five chicken weight/house hold) also recorded using sensitive balance. As observed on table 2, there was increasing trend of weight gain starting from initial weight to 24th week or on set of egg production. So, maximum average body weight gain of koekoek chicken demonstrated in Gedio zone, around Dila area at 19th and 24th week were 1.324kg and 1.746kg. This result is in line with the work done by Nthimo reported a body weight of 1.7kg for Koekoek breed at 26th week of age. Argaw and Mengistu also reported 1.39 kg of body weight at 19th weeks of age for Koekoek breeds at on station feeding trial at Haramaya University which is highly related with this work done that currently evaluated at 19th and 24th weeks of age at farmers management condition.

Table 1: Survivality and mortality rate of koekoek chicken.

Name of farmers

Initially received

Nat 2ndwk

Mortality rate (%)

No at 4rthwk

Mortality rate (%)

No at 8thwk

Mortality rate (%)

No at 12thwk

Mortality rate (%)

No at 16thwk

Mortality rate (%)

N20thwk

Mortality rate (%)

No at 24thwk

Mortality rate (%)

 Z

50

50

0

49

2

49

0

49

0

49

0

49

0

49

0

B

50

48

4

47

2

47

0

47

0

47

0

47

0

47

0

H

50

50

0

48

4

48

0

48

0

47

2

47

0

47

0

D

50

50

0

48

4

48

0

48

0

48

0

48

0

48

0

G

50

49

2

47

4

47

0

46

2

46

0

46

0

46

0

Y

50

48

4

48

0

48

0

46

4

46

0

46

0

46

0

K

50

47

6

46

2

46

0

45

2

45

0

45

0

45

0

L

50

49

2

48

2

48

0

48

0

48

0

48

0

48

0

P

 

 

50

47

6

47

0

47

0

47

0

47

0

47

0

47

0

 R

50

46

8

45

2

45

0

43

4

43

0

42

2

42

0

Table 2: Average body weight gain of chicken recorded (in gm).(in gm).

 

Initially BW/b in gm

3rd

Wk av. BWt

5th

Wk av. BWt

7th

Wk av. BWt

9th

Wk av. BWt

11th

Wk av. BWt

13th

Wk av. BWt

15th

Wk av. BWt

17th

Wk av. BWt

19th

Wk av. BWt

21th

Wk av. BWt

Onset  of      egg production BWt  (23-24 wk)

 Z

  78.03

112.72

184.54

381.718

458

569.6

710.32

998.2

1142.4

1245.7

1369

1611

B

81.35

108.78

155.96

265.132

372

463.4

690.68

782

1038

1324.5

1411

1746

H

85.35

115.72

167.94

285.498

421.4

515.8

687.34

720.6

1139.8

1202.9

1286

1585

D

81.35

98.68

133.86

227.562

446.3

550

686.7

698.8

909.6

1046.8

1224

1491

G

77.37

119.58

134.385

228.45

331.2

421.2

598.92

659.8

957.4

1109.7

1342

1716

Y

78.5

121.06

138.09

234.753

353.5

442.3

599.36

642.4

992

1120

1288

1680

K

73.58

124.08

188.16

319.872

369.1

467.3

645.42

1007

1189.2

1323.6

1418

1720

L

70.17

115.6

128.4

218.28

392.1

472

645.42

710.8

927.4

1087.7

1208

1586

P

 

R

73.58

 

68.2

109.36

 

101.2

127.024

 

118.8

228.64

 

209.4

329.8

 

332.5

439.8

 

430.5

678.5

 

582.11

708.2

 

675.3

956.2

 

942.4

1158.6

1139.3

1321

1248

1638

     1633

Table 3: Sex effect on average body weight gain of koekoek chicken.

Name of the participant farmers

No. of chicken sample taken

Average body weight  gain (gm)

 

Male

 

Female

 

Male

 

Female

 Z

5

5

1726

1561

B

5

5

1706

1601

H

5

5

1682

1495

D

5

5

1721

1575

G

5

5

1596

1564

Y

5

5

1658

1468

K

5

5

1591

1508

L

5

5

1649

1578

P

R

5

5

5

5

1678

1651

1496

1534

Average

1665

1538

Table 4: Average egg production potential and weight of koekoek chicken (in number/month).(in number/month).

Name of farmers

24th week

32th week

36 th week

 

No of female chickens  that lay eggs

Average number of eggs/month/hen  at 28th wk

Average Wt. of eggs  at 28th wk age (gm)

No of female chickens  that lay eggs

Average number of egg/month/hen  at 32th wk

Average Wt. of eggs at 32th wk age (gm)

No of female chickens  that lay eggs

Average number of egg/month/hen

Average Wt. of eggs at 36th wk age (gm)

 Z

9

18

49.4

7

19

51

5

21

49.2

B

6

16

47.4

6

17

48

6

20

49.8

H

11

20

48

9

21

52.1

6

19

51.2

D

13

17

41

10

19

47.8

5

19

49

G

5

18

45.9

5

20

49.8

4

21

52.6

Y

7

19

46.6

7

22

46

4

20

47.9

K

9

19

45.5

8

19

48.3

5

22

49.7

L

10

18

44.9

8

20

47.7

3

20

46.2

P

 

R

12

9

20

18

37

43

10

9

23

20

45

44.3

6

7

23

21

46.8

48

Table 5: Cost benefit analysis/estimated profit.

Name of the participant farmers

List of costs

Income items

Total net income

 

 

 

Profit

 

 

 

Unit

House construction

Chick purchase

Feed cost

Total variable cost

Sale of cock

Sale of hen

Z

Birr

800

300

1800

2500

4760

2610

7370

3920

B

Birr

1350

300

1800

2450

3625

2210

5835

3385

H

Birr

500

300

1350

2150

4800

2100

5900

3000

D

Birr

650

300

1820

2770

4800

1900

6700

3900

G

Birr

300

300

1400

2000

2700

1800

4500

2500

Y

Birr

450

300

1700

2450

2750

2304

5054

2604

K

Birr

500

300

2000

2800

4144

1725

5869

3069

L

Birr

280

300

1650

2230

4681

1440

6121

3891

P

 

R

Birr

Birr

550

410

300

300

1840

1610

2390

2320

2363

1860

2904

1650

5267

3510

2877

1190

But the current study that is the average weight gain (0.77kg) recorded at 15th week was not slightly consistent with the work done by [11]. Reported that 1.04kg and 1.01kg of body weight at 15 weeks of age respectively at Hawassa University intensive feeding. Actually this difference might be in management because as it has being intensive feeding and farmers management. Therefore, the average body weight gain of koekoek chicken breed recorded at different study period were very promising and profitable as evaluated under farmers management condition and this breeds showed good potential under farmers management even compatible result with intensive management. In this study, as a result shown on table 3, there is effect of sex on average body weight in all house hold up to 24th week age of demonstrated koekoek chickens under farmer’s management or there was a difference approximately 130 gram (total average gain of male and females at onset of egg production was 1665gm/1.665kg and 1538gm/1.538kg respectively) between male and female chickens. These were consistent with the work of Bangu reported that male chickens scored more weight gain than the females and achieved a higher body weight at the end of experimental period at Hawassa university intensive feeding. Fassil had similarly reported that more gain and higher body weight for growing male birds than females. This is in fact associated with higher feed intake Ng’ambi and conversion efficiency of male birds Tegene and Asrat compared to female chickens [12]. That showed male chickens had more growth rate than the females up to latter stage of growth period of demonstrated dual purpose koekoek chicken breeds around Dilla area. Average weight of eggs was 44.87 gm. 48 gm. and 49.04 gm. at 28th, 32th and 36th weeks of age respectively. This shows the egg weight increases from start of egg lay to pick stage of laying or it increases with the increment of production stage. The initial average weight gain (45.08gm) is relatively higher than the work done at Areka area which was (40.2gm) by Aman and lower in weight than that of Dessalew which was (48.84). The average weight recorded (49.16 gm.) in this study at 36th week was slightly lower than that of Debrezeit agricultural research center evaluation under intensive management which was (51.9 gm.). As indicated above table 5, the cost benefit analysis was done in each house hold that what farmers were earned saling male and female chicken and their costs while constructing small chicken house, buying feeds during participating demonstration work of dual purpose koekoek chicken. However, the cost of day old chick procurement and transportation were not included by them, but indicated as a cost because they have been bought from DARC farm and considered as if it might been farmers cost. The average income generated/obtained averagely in all households were 3033.6 ETB, The change in net income (ΔNI) was calculated as the difference between the change in total return (ΔTR) and the change in total variable costs (TVC) [13,14] (Tables 1-5).

ΔNI=ΔTR – ΔTVC

Challenges

There was a problem on a farmer’s perception that most of them thought to sale the chickens without considering research data. As a result most of them sold chicken (both male and female) before data on egg production, weight at 52 and 72 weeks of age or pick egg production age and but up to 36th week data were included.

Conclusion and Recommendations

The demonstration and evaluation work has done at Chichu woreda, Gedio zone under 10 farmers house hold and as result indicated, the survivability of chicks using hay box brooding system under farmers level averagely 93.4% to the age of 24th week or on set of egg lay observed. On averagely 3.2%, 2.2.% and 1.2% mortality rate occurred at 2nd, 4th and 12th weeks of age respectively and it was a including effect of stress during the transportation from multiplication center or Debrezeith to Gedio zone and as the house hold condition i.e. preparation of brooding house, feeding and watering materials as well as hygiene of materials. This indicated the mortality rate has been decreased from first week of introduction of chickens to end of study. Generally 6.6% mortality rate or 93.4% survivality rate observed in this study. This was indicated that adaptability of koekoek dual purpose chicken breeds around Dilla area or at mid land area were high at farmer level management using improved hay box for brooding system. The average weight gain also recorded using sensitive balance to evaluate growth performance. As a result, there was increasing trend of weight gain starting from initial weight to onset of egg production. So, maximum average body weight gain of koekok chickens were 1.324kg and 1.746kg at 19th and 24th week respectively. But there was a variation b/n male and female chickens to the end of study i.e. average weight recorded were 1665gm and 1538gm male and female respectively at onset of egg production. Similarly, average egg production and weights has been increased (18.3 to 20.6 and 44.87gm to 49.04gm) respectively to the 36th week of age. Finally, the cost benefit analysis has done and the income generated/obtained averagely in each household was 3033.6 ETB. So, the koekoek dual purpose chickens in all aspects of production and productivity were feasible to enhance family nutrition and income generates as a result showed and the same investigation should be done in other ecologies specially highlands in the region.

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