Sealers for Root Canal Treatment - A Review

Sharma Y and Toor SK

Published on: 2019-10-16


The purpose of obturation is to prevent reoccurrences of periapical pathology after root canal endodontic treatment. Recent advancements in endodontic sealers are main topic of discussion.


Biocalex; Plus root canal sealer; Apexit


The golden rule in the practice of Endodontology is to debride and complete obturation of pulp space as efficiently and three dimensionally as possible is considered to be an important part of root canal treatment [1].


Eugenol sealer cements

The original zinc oxide-eugenol cement was developed by Rickert this is based on the cement described by Dixon and Rickert in 1931. Both Rickert’s and Grossman's formulas were not accepted for including precipitated silver for radiopacity. Grossman's formula was modified again in 1947, by the addition of Sodiumborate to the powder component and by the elimination of all ingredients except eugenol from the liquid. Wach's paste, a varient of a zinc oxide-eugenol formula, was originally compounded in 1925 but did not recieve wide spread adoption until its publication and reintroduction in 1955. It is now marketed under several commercial brand names with minor variations in formulation. Tubliseal, introduced two-paste system as opposed to the powder- Liquid systems of the other zinc oxide types.

Noneugenol sealer cements

  • Chloropercha (Moyco) is in use for more than a century.
  • Kloropercha N-O was introduced in 1939 from Norway.
  • Diaket is an organic polyketone compound introduced in Europe by Schmitt in1951.
  • AH-26, introduced in Europe by Schroeder in 1957 for use in endodontic therapy is an epoxy-type resin, used commercially as an industrial adhesive and insulator [2].

Medicated root canal cements

  • Iodoform has been used as cement or as sealer with core materials. It was described by Walkhoff in 1928.
  • Biocalex originally developed and introduced by Bernard in 1952 under the name of Ocalex was a calcium oxide based sealer.
  • Calcium hydroxide pastes were introduced by Laws and Frank in 1962.

Functions of Root Canal Sealers

Root canal sealers are used in conjunction with filling materials for the following purposes:

  • Antimicrobial agent: All the popularly used sealers contain some antimicrobial agent, and so a germicidal quality is excreted in the period of time immediately after its placement.
  • Sealers are needed to fill in the discrepancies between the fit material and the dentin walls, penetrate into irregularities, isthmus, fins and ramifications, and to obturate the lateral canals.
  • Binding agent: Since the sealers are in the plastic or semi liquid state, they are able to form a bond between the filling material and the dentin walls.
  • A lubricant: With the use of semisolid materials, the most important function for the sealer to perform is its action of lubrication. Having little rigidity, gutta-percha must have considerable lubrication when it is placed to reach in the apical portion of the preparation.
  • Radiopacity: All sealers shows radiopacity property; therefore their presence can be demonstrated on a radiograph [3] (Table 1).


According to Grossman: (Eleventh Edition)

  • Zinc-oxide resin cements
  • Calcium hydroxide cements
  • Paraformaldehyde cements
  • Pastes

Table 1: Categorisation of Endodontic sealers according to their composition.

S. No

Root Canal Sealers

Brand Name


Zinc Oxide Eugenol based sealers

Roth sealer

Kerr PCS




Epoxy resin based sealers

AH Plus

AH 26

Top Seal



Silicon based sealers


Gutta flow


MTA based sealers


MTA Obtura

proRoot Endo Sealer

MTA fillapex


Calcium-silicate-Phos-phate based biocer-amic sealers

Endosequence/iRoot SP

iRoot BP



Methaacrylate resin based  sealer

First generation-Hydron

Second generation-EndoREZ, Realseal

Third generation-Epiphany,Fibrefill

Fourth generation-Realseal SE, Metaseal SE. Smartseal


Calcium-phosphate based sealers

Capseal I

Capseal II

Recent Endodontic Sealers

ProRoot endo sealer

It is a calcium silicate-based root canal sealer .It is used in the cold lateral, warm vertical or carrier based filling techniques.

Herbal sealer biosealer

It is a root canal sealer based on Copaifera multijuga oil-resin. Its powder is composed of zinc oxide, calcium hydroxide, bismuth subcarbonate, natural resin (rosin) and borax, and the liquid is purified Copaifera multijuga oil-resin.

Nanoseal plus root canal sealer

It is made up of calcium phosphate hydroxyapitite nanoparticles range from 40-60 nm. The rod shaped active nanoparticles can penetrate the dentinal tubules & enter accessory canals to ensure that all the spaces are effectively sealed [4]. 

Hybrid root seal

It is fourth generation selfadhesive dual-cure sealer with an insoluble, radiopaque material property. The liquid consist of 4-META, monofunctional methacrylate monomers and photo-initiators, while the powder contain a mixture of zirconia oxide filler, silicon dioxide filler and polymerization initiators.

Gutta flow 2 sealer

It is a cartridge form gutta percha sealer. The flow able property of material made it the sealer of choice. The larger armamentarium was main setback.

Root SP/EndoSequence BC sealer

It has an ability to form hydroxyappetite while the setting process and form strong bonding between dentinal wall and the sealer. It has insoluble, radio opaque and aluminium free material based properties. Tubli-Seal Sybron Endo/Kerr is a two-paste system contained in two separate tubes with nonstaining property, it contain zinc oxide-base paste with barium sulfate for radiopacity, and mineral oil, cornstarch,and lecithin.

Wach’s cement Roth International Inc., Chicago, IL

Contain powder of zinc oxide, bismuth subnitrate,bismuth subiodide etc. The liquid contains oil of cloves, eucalyptol etc. The liquid gives Wach’s cement a rather distinctive odor of an old-time dental office. It has the advantage of having a smooth consistency, and the Canada balsam makes the sealer tacky.        

Sealapex Sybron Endo/Kerr

 Is a calcium hydroxidecontaining noneugenol polymeric sealer that contain zinc oxide in the base along with calcium hydroxide and also contains butyl benzene, sulfonamide, and zinc stearate.

Apexit Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein

Is a calcium hydroxide sealer with combination of salicylates?

CRCS Calciobiotic Root Canal Sealer; Coltene/ Whaledent/Hygenic, Mahwah,NJ

Is a calcium hydroxide containing sealer with a zinc oxide–eugenol–eucalyptol base? It is a slow setting sealer, especially in dry or in humid climates.

Diaket 3M/ESPE, Minneapolis, MN

It is a polyketone compound containing vinyl polymers mixed with zinc oxide and bismuth phosphate [5].


The sealer acts as a binding agent between the gutta-percha and the canal wall, enhance the impervious seal by serving as filler for root canal irregularities and minor spaces between the root canal and the core material. Root canal sealers used as main materials in the obturation of root canal systems, shows positive root canal treatment.