About Journal

Journal of Pulmonary Disease and Respiratory Medicine (JPDRM) is an International Peer Reviewed Open Access journal publishing original research contributions and advances in the field of pulmonology and respiratory medicine. Covering all broad research areas, our journal aims to promote information in pulmonology and enhance standards of scientific literacy among peers, which could in turn aid in providing improved healthcare. It also serves as a platform to promote meetings and news relating to pulmonology and its related research.

Pubtexto Journal of Pulmonary Disease and Respiratory Medicine helps students, researchers, clinicians, medical practitioners and other healthcare professionals find up-to-date information about ongoing research in the field of community medicine.

JPDRM welcomes your efforts in the form of research, review papers, short communications, editorials, Book reviews, commentary, or any other type of articles relating to all aspects of Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine.

Benefits to authors

We provide many author benefits such as

  • High standard rigorous peer review such as free PDFs.
  • Rapid publication
  • Authors retain Copyright
  • Enhances the visibility and presence of the author due to free dissemination and frequent citation
  • Easy and immediate online access
  • High Impact factor and chances of getting cited liberal copyright policy
  • Special discounts on Pubtexto publications and help readers connect with potential collaborators and correspondents with a platform to publish their research work and update the recent advances.

Area: Pulmonary Disease and Respiratory Medicine

Frequency: 2 Issues per Year

Language: English

Review Process: Double-blinded peer review process

Plagiarism Policy

The articles submitted by authors must contain a minimum of 80% unique content (Which should be unique and must not copy from any other websites). The authors must maintain 100% uniqueness in the text’s results and conclusion. We will resend the articles, which have below 80% uniqueness to the authors for revision and asked for resubmissions with uniqueness (as per guidelines).

Benefits to authors

We provide many author benefits, such as free PDFs, a liberal copyright policy, and social media optimization that improve citations and help readers connect with potential collaborators and correspondents with a platform to publish their research work and update the recent advances.

Submit your manuscript online or an e-mail: stellaeditor.jpdrm@gmail.com

Open Access: free for readers, with article processing charges (APC) paid by authors or their institutions.

High Visibility: The journal provides the DOI which will be immediately deposited with metadata and available in google scholar, J-Gate, World Cat, IJF factor, DOAJ, DRJI, and a few more

Rapid publication: manuscripts are peer-reviewed and a first decision is provided to authors approximately 7-10 days after submission; acceptance to publication is undertaken in 3.5 days.

Recognition of Reviewers: reviewers who provide timely, thorough peer-review reports receive vouchers entitling them to a discount on the APC of their next publication in any Pubtexto journals, in appreciation of the work done.

Aim and Scope

Journal of Pulmonary Disease and Respiratory Medicine includes a wide range of fields in its discipline to create a platform for the authors to make their contribution towards the journal and the editorial office. Our journal promises a peer review process for submitted manuscripts and ensures quality in publishing.

Journal spotlight on a diverse range of topics like acute bronchitis, asthma, chronic inflammatory lung diseases, chronic obstructive, emphysema, pulmonary disease, influenza, pleural cavity diseases, pediatric respiratory diseases, pulmonary vascular diseases, respiratory tract infections, respiration physiology, respiratory medicine, respiratory tumors, restrictive lung diseases, lung infections, lung transplantation.

The following classifications and topics related to it will be considered for publication in the Journal of Pulmonary Disease and Respiratory Medicine but, are not limited to the following fields


Pulmonology is known as respiratory medicine, which is considered internal medicine (dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases). Pulmonology is related to intensive care medicine which is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions such as organ support and invasive monitoring.

Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary high blood pressure affects the arteries in the lungs and the right side of the heart. Pulmonary hypertension starts when pulmonary arteries and capillaries become narrowed, blocked or destroyed. This makes it harder for blood to flow through the lungs, and raises pressure within pulmonary arteries. Pulmonary hypertension is a serious illness that becomes progressively worse and is sometimes fatal. Pulmonary hypertension is not curable it is only treatable.

Pulmonary hypertension occurs in individuals of all ages, races, and ethnic backgrounds, although it is much more common in young adults and is approximately twice as common in women as in men. The first symptom of pulmonary hypertension is usually shortness of breath with everyday activities, such as climbing stairs. Fatigue, dizziness, and fainting spells also can be symptoms. Swelling in the ankles, abdomen or legs, bluish lips and skin, and chest pain may occur as strain on the heart increases.

Lung Cancer

Cigarette smoking is the principal risk factor for the development of lung cancer. Passive exposure to tobacco smoke can also cause pulmonary carcinoma. There are two types of lung cancer they are small cell lung cancers (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). The stage of lung cancer is determined by the severity to which cancer has spread in the body. Treatment of lung cancer is by surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. The general prognosis of lung cancer is poor because doctors tend not to find the disease until it is at an advanced stage. Five-year survival is 40%-50% for early-stage lung cancer, but only 1%-5% in advanced, inoperable lung cancer. Smoking cessation is the most important measure that can prevent the development of lung cancer.

Lung Transplantation

A lung transplant is an operation to get rid of and replace a diseased lung with a healthy human lung from someone who has died or donor. But in some cases, a section of the lung can be taken from a living donor. A lung transplant is used to treat patients with advanced lung disease who are failing to respond to other treatments and treat a patient whose life expectancy is less than 2 to a few years while not a transplant. In most cases, the new lung or lungs are usually donated by a person who is under age 65 and brain-dead but is still on life-support. The donor tissue must be matched as closely as possible to your tissue type. This reduces the chances that the body will reject the transplant. Lungs can also be given by living donors. Two or more people are needed. Each person donates a segment (lobe) of their lung. This forms an entire lung for the person who is receiving it.

Acute Exacerbation

Acute exacerbation of COPD or acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis is shortness of breath and color and measure of phlegm. It is the most vital outcome measure of COPD. It occurs by bacteria or viral infections caused by environmental pollution. Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) describe the phenomenon of sudden worsening in airway function and respiratory symptoms in patients with COPD. These exacerbations can range from self-limited diseases to episodes of florid respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. The average patient with COPD experiences two such episodes annually, and they account for significant consumption of health care resources. Although bacterial infections are the most common causes of AECOPD, viral infections and environmental stresses are also implicated.

Forced Expiratory Volume

Forced expiratory volume is the volume of air that is forced out in a deep breath. It is used to diagnose asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a measure of pulmonary function have lower FEV. In asthma (an obstructive lung disorder) the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is usually decreased, the forced vital capacity (FVC) is usually normal and the ratio FEV1/FVC is decreased. In restrictive disorders the FEV1 and FVC are both decreased, leaving a normal FEV1/FVC.

Lung Injury

Lung injury or pulmonary toxicity or pulmonary injury is due to medicinal drugs mostly, particulate matter, nanoparticles and chemical compounds. Lung injury score gives the extent of acute pulmonary damage. It represents side effects on the lungs.

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common condition that is characterized by acute severe hypoxia that is not due to left atrial hypertension. The term ALI encompasses a continuum of clinical and radiographic changes that affect the lungs with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) representing the more severe end of this continuum. Despite advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology and management of ALI, it is still associated with a high mortality.

Interstitial Lung Disease

Interstitial lung disease or diffuse parenchymal lung disease is a group of diseases that thickens the tissues between air sacs of the lungs. It causes scarring leads to lung stiffness, affects breathing and oxygen into the bloodstream. It associates basement membrane, pulmonary capillary endothelium, alveolar epithelium, perivascular and perilymphatic tissues. Interstitial lung disease may be broadly categorized into known and unknown causes. Common known causes include autoimmune or rheumatologic diseases, occupational and organic exposures, medications, and radiation. Interstitial lung disease of unknown cause is predominated by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a specific and progressive fibrotic lung disease, followed by the idiopathic interstitial cases of pneumonia, such as nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), and sarcoidosis.

Long Term Oxygen Therapy

Long-term oxygen therapy( LTOT) is the administration of oxygen to increase survival and quality of life in hypoxemic patients with COPD as a medical intervention for both chronic and acute patient care. Patients having high blood carbon dioxide and emphysema may reduce respiratory drive in LTOT. It also appears to reduce the number of hospitalizations, increase effort capacity, and improve health-related quality of life. Standard LTOT criteria are related to COPD patients who have PaO2 <60 mmHg, are in a clinical stable situation, and are receiving optimal pharmacological treatment. According to LTOT guidelines, oxygen should be prescribed for at least 18 hours per day.

Respiratory Mechanics

Respiratory mechanics is to manage the patients under artificial ventilation because of respiratory failure. This is a condition outlined by a rapid deterioration in pulmonic gas exchange that may be due either to alterations within the mechanical properties of the respiratory system resulting in ventilation-perfusion mismatching or shunt or to neuromuscular depression causing alveolar hypoventilation. Measurements of respiratory mechanics allow a clinician to monitor closely the course of pulmonary disease. At the bedside, changes in these mechanics can occur abruptly (and prompt immediate action) or they may reveal slow trends in respiratory condition (and prompt initiation or discontinuation of mechanical ventilation).

Lung Volume Reduction

Lung volume is the volume of air associated with respiratory life cycle phrases. Lung volume can be measured directly. Lung volume surgery is used in treating emphysema a type of COPD to improve breathing. Surgery involves the removal of damaged lung tissue for better functioning. Lung volume reduction surgery is a surgical procedure performed to remove diseased, emphysematous lung tissue. This procedure reduces the size of an over-inflated lung and allows the expansion of the remaining, often more functional lung. Lung volume reduction surgery has been shown to help improve breathing ability, lung capacity and overall quality of life in selected patients.

Patho Physiology

Pathophysiology or physiopathology is a convergence of pathology with physiology. Pathology is the medical discipline that describes conditions typically observed during a disease state, whereas physiology is the biological discipline that describes processes or mechanisms operating within an organism. Pathophysiology of COPD is the physical changes start with damage to air sacs and airways in the lungs. COPD comprises of airway inflammation, dysfunction of mucociliations and structural changes of the airway. Various factors of pathophysiology are inflammation, infection, airway limitation, pulmonary hypertension and weight loss.

Pulmonary Embolism

Pulmonary embolism is a blockage of the pulmonary arteries caused by a blood clot. Patients with pulmonary embolism may present with various symptoms such as seizures, syncope, fever, abdominal pain, wheezing, etc. Diagnosis includes D-dimer testing and CT. It is treated with anticoagulants such as warfarin and thrombolytic agents. Causes of pulmonary embolism include prolonged immobilization, medications, smoking, genetic predisposition, an increased number of red blood cells (polycythemia), cancer, pregnancy, surgery, or damage to blood vessel walls. Symptoms of pulmonary embolism include chest pain, shortness of breath, and a cough that produces bloody sputum. If not treated promptly, pulmonary embolism may lead to sudden death.

Pulmonary Gas Exchange

Pulmonary gas exchange or external respiration is the process of removing CO2 from blood and replenishing the oxygen supply. It occurs between the alveoli and the blood of the lungs. Pulmonary gas exchange occurs by diffusion and depends on the pressure gradient. Pulmonary gas exchange takes place in the lungs between the alveoli and the blood. It is also referred to as ‘external respiration’ as it involves the respiratory processes that have contact with the external environment. The process of pulmonary gas exchange removes CO2 from the blood and replenishes the types of blood O2 supply.

Respiratory Failure

Respiratory failure is the syndrome of inadequate gas exchange i.e, not sufficient oxygen passes from the lungs into the blood. It occurs with insufficient oxygenation and carbon dioxide elimination. It is classified into two types, they are hypoxemic and hypercapnic. Respiratory failure may be further classified as either acute or chronic. Although acute respiratory failure is characterized by life-threatening derangements in arterial blood gases and acid-base status, the manifestations of chronic respiratory failure are less dramatic and may not be as readily apparent.


Shortness of Breath

Shortness of breath or dyspnea is an episode of breathlessness and is the major symptom of COPD exacerbation. Shortness of breath also occurs with asthma, pneumonia, co poisoning, heart attack and pulmonary embolism etc. It can be associated with fainting, cough, chest pain, wheezing and bloody sputum etc. Causes of shortness of breath include asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, pneumothorax, anemia, lung cancer, inhalation injury, pulmonary embolism, high altitude with lower oxygen levels, congestive heart failure, allergic reaction, anaphylaxis, subglottic stenosis, interstitial lung disease, obesity, tuberculosis, emphysema, pulmonary artery hypertension, rib fracture, and aerobic exercise. 

Streptococcus Pneumonia

Patients with COPD are more prone to pneumonia caused by streptococcus pneumonia and are difficult to treat. Streptococcus pneumonia belongs to the genus streptococcus is a facultatively anaerobic, alpha hemolytic and gram-positive bacteria. Pneumococcal diseases include meningitis, acute sinusitis, bronchitis and rhinitis etc. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a Gram-positive diplococcus with a well-formed capsule. This organism is one of the commonest seen in community-acquired pneumonias, accounting for up to 25% of these infections. In the preantibiotic era streptococcal pneumonia or pneumococcal pneumonia had a high fatality rate, being a frequent cause of death in the elderly.


Corticosteroids are anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit the inflammation or swelling in the airways of the lungs. They are used mostly as inhalers in chronic pulmonary disease. Corticosteroids are a man-made version of hormones normally produced by the adrenal glands (two small glands that sit on top of the kidneys). Corticosteroids are available in different forms, including tablets (oral steroids); injections – which can be into blood vessels, joints or muscles; inhalers – such as the mouth or nasal sprays; lotions, gels or creams (topical steroids).

Chronic obstructive Lung Disease

Chronic obstructive lung disease is a disorder that obstructs bronchial airflow. The main reason for a chronic obstructive disease which is also called as chronic lung disease is smoking. The other associated diseases are chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Approximately 12 million people in the United States have been diagnosed with COPD. Many more may be affected and not know they have it. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Chronic obstructive lung disease is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. Its prevalence increases with age. Men are more likely to have the disease, but the death rate for men and women is about the same.


The diagnosis of chronic pulmonary disease is done through spirometry. It is one of the lung function tests carried out to monitor the function of the lungs. The spirometer is the device used for the test. Normal readings vary, depending on your age, size, and sex. The range of normal readings is published on a chart, and doctors and nurses refer to this chart when they check your spirometry readings. Although spirometry shows the type, pattern and severity of lung disease, it does not give an indication of the long-term outlook (prognosis) or of your quality of life.

Chronic Bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis is a pulmonary disorder that causes inflammation of the bronchial tubes symptomized by cough, shortness of breath, chest pain. There are two types of bronchitis: acute bronchitis and chronic bronchitis. Patients suffering from this disease release a lot of mucus and have difficulty of breathing. People often ignore the signs of chronic bronchitis until it is advanced because they mistakenly believe that the disease is not life-threatening. But if you wait to seek treatment, your lungs may already have been seriously injured. This puts you in danger of developing serious respiratory problems or heart failure. The good news is that chronic bronchitis can be found early and there is much that can be done to treat and help manage the disease. Cigarette smoking is by far the most common cause of chronic bronchitis. The airways of people with chronic bronchitis may also have been irritated initially by bacterial or viral infections.

Mechanical Ventilation

Mechanical ventilation is also called positive pressure ventilation. Following an inspiratory trigger, a predetermined mixture of oxygen is forced into the central airways and then flows into the alveoli. As the intra alveolar pressure increases, the termination signal eventually causes the ventilator to stop pumping air into the central airways and the central airway pressure decreases. Expiration follows passively, with air flowing from the higher-pressure alveoli to the lower-pressure central airways. Mechanical ventilators are set to deliver a constant volume (volume cycled), a constant pressure (pressure cycled), or a combination of both with each breath. Modes of ventilation that maintain a minimum respiratory rate regardless of whether or not the patient initiates a spontaneous breath are referred to as assist-control (A/C). Because pressures and volumes are directly linked by the pressure-volume curve, any given volume will correspond to a specific pressure, and vice versa, regardless of whether the ventilator is pressure or volume cycled. Adjustable ventilator settings differ with mode but include respiratory rate, tidal volume, trigger sensitivity, flow rate, waveform, and inspiratory/expiratory (I/E) ratio.

Tumor Necrosis Factor

Tumor necrosis factor or cachectin or TNF alpha is a cytokine capable of inducing necrosis of tumor cells. TNF also affects insulin resistance, coagulation and lipid metabolism. The mechanism of TNF is causing fever a direct action or interleukin-1 secretion stimulation or cell proliferation. Tumor necrosis factor: One of the multiple proteins capable of inducing necrosis (death) of tumor cells that possess a wide range of proinflammatory actions. Drugs that block the action of TNF have been shown to be beneficial in reducing inflammation in inflammatory diseases such as Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis.


A bronchodilator is a device that contains a substance that enlarges bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs to make breathing easier. A bronchodilator may be originated naturally within the body or they may be used for the treatment of breathing difficulties. They are useful in obstructive lung disease such as asthma and in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation is an emergency procedure that combines chest compressions often with artificial ventilation in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function and to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person who is in cardiac arrest.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a general term used to describe progressive lung diseases, which include emphysema, chronic bronchitis, refractory (non-reversible) asthma, and some forms of bronchiectasis. This disease is characterized by increasing breathlessness.

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Acute (or Adult) Respiratory Distress Syndrome is an acute inflammatory lung trauma that promotes increased pulmonary vascular permeability, increased lung weight and loss of aerated lung tissue. ARDS is triggered by various pathologies such as trauma, pneumonia and sepsis. Symptoms include shortness of breath, fast breathing and low oxygen level in the blood.

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension is an increase of blood pressure in the pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein or pulmonary capillaries leading to shortness of breath, dizziness, fainting, leg swelling and other symptoms. Pulmonary hypertension can be of different types according to which tests are performed to confirm the presence of pulmonary hypertension.

Cardiothoracic Surgery

Cardiothoracic Surgery is also known as thoracic surgery involved surgical treatment inside the thorax (chest). Different types of cardiac surgery include open-heart surgery, heart transplant, coronary artery bypass grafting, minimally invasive surgery etc. Cardiothoracic surgery is used for increasing the blood flow through the blocked the artery resulting in decreased chest pain.

Bronchitis and Bronchiolitis

Bronchitis and Bronchiolitis are caused by viruses and bacteria. Bronchitis causes inflammation of an upper respiratory tract infection by viral agents such as influenza, rubeola, rubella, pertussis, herpes simplex virus, rhinovirus, scarlet fever and typhoid fever, H influenzae and S pneumoniae. Bronchiolitis is a viral respiratory disease or inflammation of the bronchial tree and it is primarily caused by respiratory syncytial virus. Other viruses, including parainfluenza viruses, influenza viruses and adenoviruses (as well as occasionally M pneumoniae) are also known to cause bronchiolitis.

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis is a chronic irreversible and ultimately fatal disease characterized by a progressive decline in lung function. The term pulmonary fibrosis means scarring of lung tissue that causes shortness of breath.


Polysomnography is a type of sleep study which is used as a diagnostic tool in sleep medicine. The test used for polysomnography is called polysomnogram which is a tool that records the biophysiological changes during sleep in a multidisciplinary manner. This test is used for people suffering from circadian rhythm any types of sleep disorder narcolepsy, idiopathic hypersomnia, and periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), parasomnias, and sleep apnea.


Emphysema is a serious respiratory disease caused by smoking, people who suffer from emphysema have trouble exhaling air from their lungs. Alveoli are damaged of a person who suffers from emphysema. It evolves slowly over the year. Over time inner walls of alveoli (air sac) become weaken and get rupture. Thus creating larger air spaces instead of small ones resulting in reduced surface area of the lungs, in turn, the amount of oxygen reaches to bloodstream becomes less.


Sarcoidosis is a disease in which abnormal collections of inflammatory cells form granulomas. The disease usually begins in the lungs, skin, or lymph nodes. Less commonly affected are the eyes, liver, heart, and brain. Different organ may have different signs and symptoms. Symptoms like wheezing, cough, shortness of breath or chest pain occur when it affects the lungs.


Radiotherapy uses high-energy rays to treat disease. Radiotherapy is used to treat cancer. It can be given both externally (high-energy x-rays at the affected area using a large machine and internally (radioactive material placed inside the body close to cancerous tissue).


Pneumonia is an inflammatory infection in the lung that affects the air sac known as alveoli that are filled with pus or fluid making it difficult to breathe. Pneumonia is caused by numerous factors, such as environmental contaminants and autoimmune diseases, as well as infection. Pneumonia is usually caused by infection with viruses, bacteria or fungi and less commonly by other microorganisms. Signs and symptoms of pneumonia include fever, sweating, shortness of breath and chest pain.

Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disorder that affects the lungs, pancreas, liver, kidneys and intestine. Cystic fibrosis is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. It begins when both copies of the gene for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein get mutated. Sign and symptoms include difficulty in breathing, coughing up mucus, fatty stool, clubbing of fingers and toes. The condition is diagnosed by a sweat test and genetic testing.

Lungs Biology

The lungs are organs of the respiratory system that allow us to take in and expel air. The body contains two lungs, of which one is positioned on the left side of the chest cavity and the other on the right side. The process of breathing in and out is known as ventilation. In the breathing process, the lungs take in oxygen from the air through inhalation. Carbon dioxide produced by cellular respiration is in turn released through exhalation.

Respiratory System

The respiratory system is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for the purpose of respiration in an organism. The respiratory system is involved in the intake and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and the environment. There are three major parts of the respiratory system: the airways, the lungs, the muscles of respiration. In air-breathing vertebrates like human beings, respiration takes place in the respiratory organs called lungs.

Pediatric Pulmonology

Pediatric Pulmonology is treating children with lung or breathing problems. It deals with the breath of life in all its aspects like control of breathing, sleep disorders, obstruction to airflow in the common diseases of upper and lower airways such as croup, bronchiolitis, asthma, cystic fibrosis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia; restriction to lung function from disorders affecting the chest wall, the musculature, the nervous system, or lung tissue itself; congenital anomalies and so on.

Respiratory Diseases

Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing. Respiratory diseases range from mild and self-limiting, such as the common cold, to life-threatening entities like bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, and lung cancer. The study of respiratory disease is known as pulmonology. Common respiratory disorders include Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Bronchitis, Emphysema, Asthma, Pneumonia.

Airway Disorders

Lung diseases are some of the most common medical conditions in the world. A number of diseases adversely affect lung function. Some impact the airways or lung tissues directly while others impede normal breathing by transforming structures around the lungs. Smoking, infections, and genetics are responsible for most lung diseases. Diseases that can affect the airways include Asthma, COPD, Chronic Bronchitis, Acute Bronchitis, Cystic Fibrosis.

Lung Diseases Affecting the Air Sacs (Alveoli)

Alveolar lung diseases are a group of diseases that mainly affect the alveoli of the lungs. It refers to filling of the airspaces with fluid or other material (water, pus, blood, cells or proteins). These diseases adversely affect the lung function. Alveolar lung disease may be divided into acute or chronic.

Pleural Disorders

The pleura is a thin tissue covered by a layer of cells that surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the chest wall. The pleural space is the area between the lungs and the chest wall. Many different conditions can cause pleural problems which leads to pleural disorders like pleurisy, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hemothorax.

Interstitial Lung Diseases

Interstitial lung disease, also known as diffuse parenchymal lung disease, is a group of lung diseases affecting the interstitium. Interstitial lung disease may be broadly categorized into known and unknown causes. Common known causes include autoimmune or rheumatologic diseases, occupational and organic exposures, medications, and radiation. Interstitial lung disease of unknown cause is predominated by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a specific and progressive fibrotic lung disease, followed by the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, such as nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and sarcoidosis.

Sleep and Ventilation Disorders

Significant physiologic changes in breathing take place during normal sleep-related to alterations in respiratory drive and musculature. People often need non-invasive ventilation to support their breathing at night-time.

Pulmonary Vascular Diseases

Pulmonary vascular disease is the medical term for disease affecting the blood vessels leading to or from the lungs. Most forms of pulmonary vascular disease cause shortness of breath. There are two main types of pulmonary vascular diseases: pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension.

Lung Cancer

Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in the tissues of the lung. The two main types are small-cell lung carcinoma and non-small-cell lung carcinoma. The most common symptoms are coughing, weight loss, shortness of breath and chest pain.

Pulmonary Neoplasm

Pulmonary neoplasm is an abnormal growth in the lung, commonly known as a tumor. Neoplastic growths are the product of unchecked cellular reproduction and may be either benign or malignant. Primary lung neoplasms are rare in children. Amongst the malignant pulmonary lesions in children, secondaries from osteosarcomas are more commonly encountered.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

COPD is a type of obstructive lung disease (airway obstruction) characterized by long-term poor airflow. It can cause coughing that produces large amounts of mucus, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and other symptoms.

Occupational Lung Diseases

Exposure to dust in the workplace is associated with a variety of pulmonary and systemic illnesses. Occupational diseases are often thought to be uniquely and specifically related to factors in the work environment. These are groups of diagnoses caused by the inhalation of dust, chemicals, or proteins. “Pneumoconiosis” is the term used for the diseases associated with inhaling mineral dusts. Pneumoconiosis means “dusty lungs.” These can include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and mesothelioma.

Respiratory Infections

Respiratory infection is a leading cause of seeking medical care in returning travelers. Respiratory infections occur in up to 20% of all travelers, which is almost as common as travelers’ diarrhea. Respiratory tract infections are any infection of the sinuses, throat, airways, or lungs. Healthcare professionals generally make a distinction between upper respiratory tract infections and lower respiratory tract infections.

Pulmonary Pharmacology

Pulmonary pharmacology concerns understanding how drugs act on the lung and the pharmacological therapy of pulmonary diseases. Much of pulmonary pharmacology is concerned with the effects of drugs on the airways and the therapy of airway obstruction, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which are among the most common chronic diseases in the world.

Lung Transplantation

A lung transplant is a surgical procedure to replace a diseased or failing lung with a healthy lung, usually from a deceased donor. Depending on the medical condition, a lung transplant may involve replacing one of the lungs or both of them. In some situations, the lungs may be transplanted along with a donor's heart. While lung transplants carry certain associated risks, they can also extend life expectancy and enhance the quality of life for end-stage pulmonary patients.

Pulmonary Hypertension

PH is an increase of blood pressure in the pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, or pulmonary capillaries, together known as the lung vasculature, leading to shortness of breath, dizziness, fainting, leg swelling and other symptoms.

Interventional Pulmonology

Interventional pulmonology is a new field within pulmonary medicine focused on the use of advanced diagnostic and therapeutic techniques for patients with lung cancer, airway disorders, and pleural diseases. Interventional pulmonology uses endoscopy and other tools to diagnose and treat conditions in the lungs and chest. Few procedures of interventional pulmonology include flexible bronchoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage, a biopsy of lung or lymph node, foreign body removal.


  • cardiology & pulmonology
  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia
  • critical care 
  •  lung Transplantation
  • hemato-oncology
  • Pleural Disease
  • Asthma
  • Vaginal Hysterectomy
  • Allergy
  • Occupational disorders, and the role of allergens and pollutants
  •  Pulmonary Neoplasm
  • Therapeutic intervention
  • Non-invasive ventilation
  • Lung infections respiratory diseases
  •  Sleep-related breathing disorders
  • Therapeutic interventions
  • Interstitial lung diseases
  • Adult and pediatric medicine
  •  Lung cancer
  • Cell biology
  • Clinical genetics
  •  Bronchial Asthma
  • Rhinitis
  • Breathing Disorders
  • Airway and lung infection
  • Breathlessness
  •  Epidemiology
  •  Bronchogenic Carcinoma
  • Pediatrics
  •  Bronchoscopic Techique
  • neurology & metabolic disorders
  • Respiratory Tract Infection
  •  Thoracic Disease
  • Bronchoscopy
·         Smoking Cessation
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
·         Asthma and Allergy
  • Lung Adino Carcinoma
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  • Lung Development
  • Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  • Lung Fibrosis
  • Bronchoscopy
  • Lung Infection and Treatment
  • Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis
  • Lung Inflammation and Treatment
  • Pulmonary Circulation
  • Pulmonary Thromboembolism
  • Edema
  • Lung Pain Treatment
  • Eosinophilia
  • Lung Parenchyma
  • Hypoplasia
  • Lung Radiation Therapy
  • Thoracic Cancer
  • Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis
  • Aerosol Medicine
  • Pulmonary Angiography
  • Interstitium
  • Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
  • Tuberculosis
  • Pulmonary Aspergillosis
  • Pulmonary neoplasm
  • Pulmonary Cancer
  • Breathe
  • Pulmonary Circulation
  • Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
  • Pulmonary Critical Care
  • Pediatric Pneumology
  • Pulmonary Dysplasia
  • Pulmonary Vascular diseases
  • Pulmonary Effusion
  • Respiratory Tract Infections
  • Pulmonary Eosinophilia
  • Thoracic Imaging
  • Pulmonary Fibrosis
  • Paediatric Pneumonology
  • Pulmonary Function Tests
  • Bronchial Diseases
  • Pulmonary Hypoplasia
  • Pneumomediastinum
  • Pulmonary Interstitial Fibrosis
  • Complications of HIV
  • Pulmonary Lymphoma
  • Pulmonary edema



Chronic Airflow Obstruction

Chronic airflow obstruction or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the obstructive lung diseases of poor airflow. Smoking is the main cause of airflow obstruction. The main symptoms of this disease include shortness of breath and cough. Treatment for that particular disease will slow worsening but there is no cure. In most cases, we can prevent this disease by reducing exposure to risk factors such as decreasing the rate of smoking and improving the quality of indoor and outdoor air. There are some treatments to reduce the worsening of this disease including quitting smoking, vaccinations, respiratory rehabilitation and steroids.

Chronic Lung Disease

Chronic lung disease is also known as bronchopulmonary dysplasia. It is a health problem that occurs when a baby has damaged tissue in the lungs. Due to that the tissue will be inflamed and may be break down. In that case it will be difficult to that baby to breath, there they need oxygen therapy. It is the most common disease in premature babies. The most common symptoms in this disease include fast breath, pale, grey, or blotchy skin, use the neck, chest and belly muscles to breathe, tiring during and after feeding.

Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease

Chronic obstructive airway disease is a health condition that makes it the people hard to breathe. Tobacco consumption is the major cause of this disease. Exposure to other lung irritants, air pollution, chemical fumes or dust may also cause chronic obstructive airway disease. This disease will include emphysema means damage to the air sacs in the lungs and chronic bronchitis (long-term inflammation of the airways). The main symptoms include increasing breathlessness, persistent chesty cough, wheezing, chest infections.

Bronchopulmonary Disease

It is the most common chronic lung disease of infants with low birth weight. And it was most common to those infants who receive prolonged mechanical ventilation to treat respiratory distress syndrome. The symptoms of this disease will depend on the severity of the problem. The most common symptoms are rapid breathing, wheezing, poor growth, repeated lung infections. The main risk factors include the degree of prematurity, prolonged mechanical ventilation, high concentrations of oxygen, male gender, maternal conditions and etc.

Chronic Respiratory Disease

Chronic respiratory disease is a disease of the airways and structures of the lung. This will include asthma, chronic obstructive airway disease, lung disease and hypertension. The common risk factors of this disease include people aged more than 60, Women, asthma patients. We can prevent this disease by reducing exposure to tobacco smoking, air pollution. Chronic respiratory diseases are not curable, however, various forms of treatment that help dilate major air passages and improve shortness of breath can help control symptoms and increase the quality of life for people with the disease.

Pulmonary Emphysema

Pulmonary Emphysema in the broadest sense of the word is pneumatosis, that is, any abnormal accumulation of air or other gas within animal tissues. In the most common sense of the word it is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 

Obstructive Lung Disease

Obstructive Lung Disease is a category of respiratory disease characterized by airway obstruction. Many obstructive diseases of the lung result from narrowing of the smaller bronchi and larger bronchioles, often because of excessive contraction of the smooth muscle itself. It is generally characterized by inflamed and easily collapsible airways, obstruction to airflow, problems exhaling and frequent medical clinic visits and hospitalizations. Types of obstructive lung disease include; asthma, bronchiectasis, bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Obstructive Respiratory Tract Disease

Obstructive Respiratory Tract Disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing. Respiratory diseases range from mild and self-limiting, such as the common cold, to life-threatening entities like bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, acute asthma and lung cancer. 

Chronic Pulmonary Disease

Chronic Pulmonary Disease is also known as chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), and chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), is a collection of diseases that make breathing gradually more difficult. Symptoms of COPD include difficulty breathing and cough, in particular coughing up lots of phlegm. It is usually caused by smoking cigarettes, and around half of the people who smoke for their whole lives will develop COPD. Air pollution can be another cause, particularly in countries where indoor fires are used without ventilation.

Pulmonary Medicine

Pulmonary Medicine is a medical specialty that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract. It deals with chest medicine and respiratory medicine in some countries and areas. Pulmonology is considered a branch of internal medicine and is related to intensive care medicine. Pulmonology often involves managing patients who need life support and mechanical ventilation. Pulmonologists are specially trained in diseases and conditions of the chest, particularly pneumonia, asthma, tuberculosis, emphysema, and complicated chest infections.

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Journal Spotlight

  •   cardiology & pulmonology
  •   critical care
  •   hemato-oncology
  •   Asthma
  •   Allergy
  •   Non-invasive ventilation
  •   Sleep-related breathing disorders
  •   Interstitial lung diseases
  •   Lung cancer
  •   Clinical genetics
  •   Rhinitis
  •   Airway and lung infection
  •   Epidemiology
  •   Pediatrics
  •   neurology & metabolic disorders
  •   Thoracic Disease
  •   Smoking Cessation
  •   Asthma and Allergy
  •   Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  •   Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  •   Bronchoscopy
  •   Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis
  •   Pulmonary Circulation
  •   Edema
  •   Eosinophilia
  •   Hypoplasia
  •   Thoracic Cancer
  •   Lung Cancer
  •   Aerosol Medicine
  •   Interstitium
  •   Tuberculosis
  •   Pulmonary neoplasm
  •   Breathe
  •   Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
  •   Pediatric Pneumology
  •   Pulmonary Vascular diseases
  •   Respiratory Tract Infections
  •   Thoracic Imaging
  •   Paediatric Pneumonology
  •   Bronchial Diseases
  •   Pneumomediastinum
  •   Complications of HIV
  •   Community-Acquired Pneumonia
  •   lung Transplantation
  •   Pleural Disease
  •   Vaginal Hysterectomy
  •   COPD
  •   Occupational disorders
  •    and the role of allergens and pollutants
  •   Asthma
  •   Allergy
  •   Non-invasive ventilation
  •   Therapeutic intervention
  •   Lung cancer
  •   Lung infections respiratory diseases
  •   Therapeutic interventions
  •   Adult and pediatric medicine
  •   Cell biology
  •   Bronchial Asthma
  •   Breathing Disorders
  •   Breathlessness
  •   Bronchogenic Carcinoma
  •   Bronchoscopic Techique
  •   Respiratory Tract Infection
  •   Bronchoscopy
  •   Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  •   Lung Adino Carcinoma
  •   Lung Development
  •   Lung Fibrosis
  •   Lung Infection and Treatment
  •   Lung Inflammation and Treatment
  •   Pulmonary Thromboembolism
  •   Lung Pain Treatment
  •   Lung Parenchyma
  •   Lung Radiation Therapy
  •   Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis
  •   Pulmonary Angiography
  •   Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
  •   Pulmonary Aspergillosis
  •   Pulmonary Cancer
  •   Pulmonary Circulation
  •   Pulmonary Critical Care
  •   Pulmonary Dysplasia
  •   Pulmonary Effusion
  •   Pulmonary Eosinophilia
  •   Pulmonary Fibrosis
  •   Pulmonary Function Tests
  •   Pulmonary Hypoplasia
  •   Pulmonary Interstitial Fibrosis
  •   Pulmonary Lymphoma
  •   Pulmonary Neoplasm
  •   Pulmonary edema
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