A Systematic Review of the Phenotypic and Molecular Mechanisms of Virulence and Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhi

Fowoyo PT

Published on: 2020-03-20

Abstract

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is the etiologic agent of typhoid fever which is responsible for about 21,600 deaths annually, a large proportion of which is reported in developing countries. The organism is capable of evading the host defence mechanism to establish pathogenesis and this is enabled by the presence of specific virulence genes clustered in regions over the chromosome known as Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI). Typhoid fever could be fatal therefore it requires effective antibiotic therapy. Strains which are antibiotic resistant could lead to increased mortality rates due to failure of routinely used antibiotics. This review gives an insight into the molecular mechanisms of virulence and antibiotic resistance so as to enhance more effective disease management and control.