Solid Solution and Crystal Engineering
Published on: 2019-09-18
The full success of crystal engineering will have a positive impact in our technological development. Solid solutions are one of the methods of crystal engineering. These solutions were divided into the substitutional and interstitial solid solutions. However, these solutions have the potential to transform the field of crystal engineering to applicable fields. In addition, the study of such solutions answers an aesthetic demand that is implicit in each scientific activity. Besides the traditional work on metals (alloys) and inorganic salts, many examples of solid solutions include pharmaceuticals, functional materials, inclusion compounds, and porous solids. Solid solutions can be exploited to enforce a desired molecular connectivity and crystal symmetry and to fine-tune unit cell dimension as well as many other physicochemical properties. In some cases, solid solutions of different materials can produce exotic characteristics that are not observed in the parent solids. In other cases, solid solutions are reported as an inconvenient phenomenon that needs to be avoided. Examples of the latter include purification, ex-solution or resolution, and molecular separation processes. Solid solutions can be characterized by various techniques such as XRD, XRF, SEM and TEM. There are different preparation methods for such solutions. Mechanisms of solid solutions were determined.