Characterization Nano Particles and Indonesia Climatic Trend

Winarso PA

Published on: 2019-12-28

Abstract

Traditional thinking imposes that the arts and sciences are rooted in opposite values: creativity, imagination and freedom of thought for the former; rationality, rigorousness and acceptance of laws for the latter. But what are they? Underneath the surface of disciplinary stereotypes and others there are something much more fundamental, something universal and etc. Both being human endeavours, art and science are entrenched with passion, desire, success, struggle, fear, envy and awe. They originate from an all-so-human need to understand the world in which we have been put without our asking for it

Keywords

Nano Particles; human endeavors

Editorial

Traditional thinking imposes that the arts and sciences are rooted in opposite values: creativity, imagination and freedom of thought for the former; rationality, rigorousness and acceptance of laws for the latter. But what are they? Underneath the surface of disciplinary stereotypes and others there are something much more fundamental, something universal and etc. Both being human endeavors, art and science are entrenched with passion, desire, success, struggle, fear, envy and awe. They originate from an all-so-human need to understand the world in which we have been put without our asking for it. How much more common ground could they have than this shared fundamental quest? Every other label associated with art or science is an artificial tag to justify one enterprise over the other, but has little sense. It is undeniable, though, that scientists and artists look at the world from different angles. But herein lies the richness of the cross-fertilization between the two fields. In this issue of Nanoparticles and Molecular Nanotechnology we have collected experiences of artists whose work is inspired by scientific or technological advances. By reading these contributions, the range of benefits scientists can enjoy from engaging with artists should become clear. Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nm in diameter or at least in one dimension for tubes and fibers, as commonly defined. They have many unique properties compared to large particles or bulk materials due to a high fraction of molecules on the particle surface and a large surface area-to-volume ration. For instance, they can be chemically very reactive (as catalysts), transformed easily (sintering), or act as seeds for vapor condensation (new particle formation in the atmosphere). Nanoparticles have an important role in climate change, since they can grow to the size of cloud condensation nuclei and thus have a cool climate and, in contrast, absorb sun radiation warming climate as black carbon particles on snow. Moreover, nanoparticles have adverse health effects, since they can easily penetrate deep into the lungs during inhalation and thus cause unwanted reactions in the human body. Nanoparticles in the atmosphere originate from various sources. In the urban atmosphere, nanoparticles are typically formed from different combustion processes during energy production and transport by petrol and diesel vehicles, and other industrial processes. In the rural areas, the nucleation and growth of new particles (i.e., new particle formation) is a very important source of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles can also escape to the atmosphere during the manufacture and use of engineered nanoparticles. The characterization of nanoparticles is often very challenging, because the size or mass of the analyzed particles is below the detection limit of commonly used chemical analysis methods; furthermore, particle losses in sampling lines can be remarkable, or they can be transformed or destroyed during investigation by electron microcopy, for example. However, recently novel methods have been developed for nanoparticle analysis, e.g., mass spectrometers and particle size magnifiers. The aim of this Special Issue is to gain insight into the current literature on nanoparticles in the atmosphere. Contributions from laboratory and field measurements and theoretical and modelling studies of nanoparticles from various atmospheric environments are welcome. Furthermore, recent studies on the development of nanoparticle characterization methods, as well as studies on nanoparticle formation mechanisms, are also anticipated. Finally, contributions focusing on the effects of nanoparticles on the Earth's climate and human health are very welcome. Introducing Climatic trend in Indonesia as the research and development of the climate variability and change.