True Renaissance in Maximizing the Utilization of the Used Materials

Deraz NM

Published on: 2019-12-28

Abstract

A Science perspective on the regulatory challenges of the pollutants:  wastewater is different. Maximizing the use of things leads to a real renaissance based on the great economic and environmental returns. Here we approach the adsorption of heavy and contaminated elements for water. The term heavy metal refers to any metallic chemical element that has a relatively high density and is toxic or poisonous at low concentrations such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), thallium (Tl), and lead (Pb).

Keywords

Renaissance; Science perspective ;nano-particles

Editorial

A Science perspective on the regulatory challenges of the pollutants:  wastewater is different. Maximizing the use of things leads to a real renaissance based on the great economic and environmental returns. Here we approach the adsorption of heavy and contaminated elements for water. The term heavy metal refers to any metallic chemical element that has a relatively high density and is toxic or poisonous at low concentrations such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), thallium (Tl), and lead (Pb).

We find that many scientists or almost all of them do not benefit from the adsorbents again. Here the author sees that it is necessary to benefit from these materials. Then come the question that forced itself on the possibility of using oxides in adsorption processes? And that this would incur high costs. Here the author sees that oxides can be used after heavy metals disposal. This will be done only by a very simple process, by burning it and considering that the heavy elements are like doping materials.

Since the author has considerable experience in the preparation, characterization and applications of oxides, his thinking in development was geared towards maximizing the use of the oxides used. His question was about magnetic oxides, which are easier to recover from solutions by magnetic field after adsorption of heavy elements on the surface of oxides, and then heating these oxides to obtain heavy metal doped oxides and then these doped oxides used again as catalysts etc.

 Oxide based nano-particles are inorganic nano-particles such as oxides of titanium, zinc, magnesium and iron. These oxides are usually prepared by non-metals and metals. The most important of these oxides are iron oxides. In the opinion of the author that iron oxides is one of the most important oxides used in the disposal of various heavy elements and this is due to several reasons are as follows [1-3] : (i) Magnetic iron oxide adsorbents have the benefit of easy separation from the treated liquid via an external magnetic field. (ii) The reusability of the iron based adsorbents is possible after the treatment. (iii) Site-specific targeting of contaminated zone by use of magnetic guidance. (iv) Wastewater pollutants can be effectively removed with a relatively small amount and short time by using different types of iron such as bulk ferric oxide, mixed oxides containing ferric oxide, and ferrites.  On other words, iron oxide based adsorbents have numerous advantages compared with the conventional adsorbents and their bulk counterparts. Maximizing the advantages of these adsorbents will be by its treatment. The use of nano-particles would be a great value for advancements in catalytic wastewater purification such as photo catalysis, electro catalysis and Fenton catalysis [4,5].

 It is known that iron oxides are used as adsorption materials and to maximize the utilization of these materials have been loaded on carrier materials such as bentonite and diatomite [6,7]. In fact, bentonite or diatomite embedded nanoparticles have high the adsorption capacity of these materials. These findings could be attributed to the better dispersion ability of nanoparticles and the elimination of nanoparticle co-aggregation. In the opinion of the author that these materials can be used again after the adsorption of heavy elements on their surface by simple heat treatment to re-interaction of the mixture of adsorbent and adsorbate to produce new product that can be used in catalysis and so on.

Various authors show that NiO-nanoparticles prepared by the organic solvent method is more active than that prepared by the precipitation method for removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions [8]. The adsorption process is a function of the adsorbent and adsorbate concentrations and contact time.

Equilibrium was achieved practically in 2 h. Another author investigates four classes for wastewater purification; First, nano-adsorbents such as activated carbon, carbon nanotubes, grapheme, manganese oxide, zinc oxide, titanium oxide, magnesium oxide and ferric oxides that are usually applied for removal of heavy metals from the wastewater. Second, nano-catalysts such as photocatalyst, electrocatalyst, Fenton based catalyst, and chemical oxidant have been shown the potential for removing both organic and inorganic contaminants. Third, nanomembranes have been used for effective removal of dyes, heavy metals and foulants using carbon nanotube membranes, electrospun nanofibers and hybrid nano-membranes. Finally, the integration of nanotechnology with biological processes such as algal membrane bioreactor, anaerobic digestion and microbial fuel cell [9]. Unfortunately, there is not enough information in the literature up to date on how to employ the oxide adsorbents after their use in wastewater remediation.

Different questions need to be answered for future applications; including: How does the treatment of oxides by heavy metals influence the application of the oxides? What are the implications for full-scale applications? What degree of performance does heavy metal treatment oxides have in comparison to conventional oxides in common used? What are the possible challenges and economical values of applying the heavy metal treatment oxides for wastewater treatment and different applications?

References

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